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NH GI TC NG MI TRNG CHIN LC

(SEA: Strategic Environmental Assessment )

Phn 1 Gii thiu v MC Phn 2 Qui trnh MC Phn 3 Cc phng php thc hin MC Phn 4 Lng ghp gia MC v CQK

PHN 1: Gii thiu v MC


MC l g? Ti sao MC quan trng Li ch v chi ph ca MC

Khi nim v MC Vit Nam


nh gi mi trng chin lc (MC) l vic phn tch, d bo cc tc ng n mi trng ca cc d n chin lc, quy hoch, k hoch pht trin trc khi ph duyt nhm m bo pht trin bn vng (Lut BVMT 2005, Chng I, iu 3, Khon 19). MC c mc ch lng ghp cc vn v mi trng vo qu trnh xy dng CQK v to iu kin vic ra quyt nh c minh bch v c s tham gia (B Ti nguyn v Mi trng, 2008, Hng dn k thut chung v MC)

M HNH THP V MI QUAN H GIA MC V MT


Chin lc

MC - nh gi tc ng cng hng ca mt chin lc, quy hoch hoc k hoch - Hi ha gia pht trin kinh t, mi trng v x hi, bo m cho s pht trin bn vng

Quy hoch

K hoch
MT - nh gi tc ng mi trng ca mt d n u t c th - Bo m cho qu trnh thc hin d n p ng c cc tiu chun v mi trng

D n u t

Cc cng c qun l mi trng trong tin trnh pht trin KT-XH

TM (EIA) i tng

MC (SEA)

c p dng i vi mt d n c p dng i vi cc quy hoch/k u t c th. hoch, chng trnh pht trin kinh t x hi vng, a phng, ngnh. Mc tiu

Nhn dng, d bo, phn tch v Nhn dng, d bo v nh gi tng hp nh gi cc tc ng mi trng v cc hu qu mi trng ca vic thc ca d n. hin cc quy hoch/k hoch Quy trnh thc hin
TM c tin hnh sau khi c MC c tin hnh song song vi qu phng n u t c xut. trnh hoch nh cc chin lc, quy hoch/k hoch

D liu
nh lng hn
a ra cc bin php gim thiu nhim mi trng, cng ngh gim thiu ngun thi

nh tnh hn Sn phm ch yu
a ra cc xut c tnh nh hng pht trin, iu chnh hoch nh CQK v lng ghp cc mc tiu MT vo qu trnh CQK

Ti sao MC quan trng?

Cc nh ra quyt nh phi xem xt nhiu hn n cc tc ng tch ly v lu di ca cc d n khc nhau. TM ca cc d n l cng c quan trng nhng cha gii quyt mt cch c h thng cc tc ng tch ly ca cc d n. MC c th cng c v lm cho TM cp d n c th hiu qu hn.

Li ch v chi ph ca MC

Tm tt
Li ch ca MC Tit kim c thi gian v tin ca cho qu trnh ra quyt nh chin lc

Lm gia tng s ng h ca cng chng i vi cc nh hoch nh CQK v nhng ngi ra quyt nh


Nng cao c cht lng ca vic ra quyt nh chin lc Chi ph ca MC Chu u, MC c th lm tng thm 510% tng chi ph xy dng CQK

Nhng ngi tham gia chnh trong qu trnh MC

Cc bn tham gia trc tip trong qu trnh MC

C quan thc hin CQK

MC
Cc nh phn tch, cc c quan Vin nghin cu, NGO

C quan thc hin MC

Hi ng thm nh

Cng ng, gii kinh doanh


Ra quyt nh

Cc kt qu ca MC
MC a ra cc gi thc tin cho vic lng ghp cc kha cnh v mi trng hoc tnh bn vng vo qu trnh xy dng CQK : Xc nh nhng hn ch v c hi v mi trng Nhng gi ti u ha cc hnh ng c xut (trnh t, quy m/a im, v.v); Nhng gi ti u ha vic t chc thc hin. Bo co MC

m bo rng cc nh ra quyt nh v cc bn hu quan c th thm nh c cht lng ca mt MC.


c dng nh gi CQK

Phn 2: Qui trnh MC

Cc bc thc hin MC trong Hng dn ca B TNMT


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Xc nh phm vi MC

Xc nh nhng vn ct li v mi trng v nhng mc tiu v mi trng c lin quan n CQK;

Xc nh cc bn lin quan chnh v xy dng k hoch huy ng s tham gia ca cc bn lin quan; Phn tch nhng xu hng bin i v mi trng khi khng c CQK; nh gi v cc mc tiu v phng n pht trin c xut;

nh gi v nhng xu hng mi trng b bin i trong tng lai do cc hat ng c xut trong CQK;

7.
8.

xut cc bin php gim nhe tc ng v k hoch gim st mi trng ;

Lp bo co MC v trnh ti cc c quan co thm quyn lin quan xem xet v thm nh.

Bc 1: Xc nh phm vi MC cho mt CQK c th (Scoping)

Mc ch v cch tip cn
Cung cp khung lm vic cho vic xc nh phm vi MC: Khng gian, thi gian. Cc vn mi trng.

Cc ch th nh gi.
T vn (tham kho kin rng ri ca cc chuyn gia, cc ngnh v phm vi MC)

c tin hnh khi bi cnh tng th ca CQK ang c xc nh v khi cc phng n la chn tng th nht ang c xy dng Ngi tin hnh cng tc xc nh phm vi cn phi thu thp c cc thng tin v :

Cu trc v trnh t ca qu trnh xy dng CQK


Cc vn ct li ang c xem xt, v Tin thi gian v vic t chc cho cc bn lin quan tham gia vo qu trnh xy dng CQK

Bc 2: Xc nh cc vn mi trng ct li v cc mc tiu mi trng c lin quan n CQK


nhim khng kh

Cht thi rn

Nc thi
CTNH

Mc ch v cch tip cn
Nhm xc nh cc vn v mc tiu v mi trng c lin quan cn phi c xem xt trong qu trnh tin hnh MC. Danh mc cc vn v mc tiu mi trng ch yu, trong o bao gm nhng vn chnh c vit mt cch ngn gn, r rng.
Danh mc cc vn MT

Danh mc s b ny khng nn c s dng mt cch cng nhc c th c nhng thay i bi v s nhn thc v cc vn mi trng ca CQK lun c pht sinh thm

Nhim v 1: Xc nh cc vn mi trng ct li

Nhim v 2: Xc nh cc mc tiu mi trng c lin quan

Nhim v 3: La chn cc ch s thch hp hoc cc cu hi nh hng

Bc 3: Xc nh cc bn lin quan chnh va xy dng k hoch huy ng s tham gia ca cc bn lin quan (Stakeholder)

Mc ch
Nhm xc nh cc bn c lin quan n qu trnh MC

Phng php tham vn cc bn lin quan


Mc ch:
Thu thp thng tin v hin trng iu kin t nhin, kinh t x hi v mi trng Thu thp cc kin ng gp cho quy hoch v cho cc ni dung MC Tho lun cc vn cha r v tm kim phng n thng nht gii quyt

Nguyn tc chung:
Ngn gn, y , d hiu v d tip cn

Phng php:
Phn pht ti liu tm tt Hi tho Pht phiu iu tra T vn qua mng internet T chc trin lm cng khai gii thiu ni dung quy hoch v ni dung bo co MC

Bc 4: Phn tch cc xu hng bin i khi khng c CQK

Mc ch
m t xu hng ca phng n KHNG ngha l s bin i v hin trng mi trng trong trng hp CQK khng c thc hin. Nhiu vn mi trng c th c ci thin hoc tr nn ti t hn trong tng lai m khng lin quan g n CQK

M t cc xu hng qu kh v hin ti c th da trn cc d liu sn c t cc ngun thng tin hin ti hoc thng qua s phn xt ca cc chuyn gia (trong trng hp thiu d liu).

C cc thng tin nh tnh v nh lng c th s dng c cho mc ch ny

Bc 5: nh gi cc mc tiu v phng n pht trin c xut

Ma trn: nhng s xung t v tng hp khc nhau c th d dng nhn thy mt cch trc quan thng qua vic s dng cc biu tng n gin hoc mu sc biu th : Cc xung t/hn ch tuyt i (mu ), Cc xung t/hn ch tng i (mu da cam), Tc ng tch cc hoc s tng hp ng k (mu xanh l cy nht), Tng hp hon ton o l mc tiu xut gii quyt mt vn v mi trng hoc tnh bn vng hin ti (mu xanh l cy m), S tc ng l khng chc chn (mu xanh da tri), S tc ng l khng nh k (khng mu).

Bc 6: nh gi cc tc ng tch cc v tiu cc ca cc hot ng c xut trong CQK n cc xu hng bin i mi trng lin quan

Mc ch
nh gi cc tc ng tch ly v/hoc cc tc ng tiu cc ca cc xut c th trong CQK n cc xu hng bin i mi trng lin quan xut cc bin php phng nga, gim thiu c th ci thin mc ti a c th cc tc ng tiu cc khi thc hin CQK n mi trng hoc n s pht trin bn vng.

Cch tip cn
u tin phi xc nh c nhng hp phn (nhng nhm d n hay nhng d n c lp) ca CQK c kh nng gy ra nhng tc ng ng k n ln cc xu hng mi trng lin quan. M t cc tc ng ca tng hp phn ca CQK n cc xu hng mi trng c lin quan.

i vi mi hp phn, cc chuyn gia MC cn gii thch: c im ca cc ri ro/tc ng (nguyn nhn chnh xc gy ra ri ro/tc ng) Xc sut xy ra. Phm vi a l b tc ng.

Thi gian ca tc ng (ngn hn, di hn)

Bc 7: xut v cc bin php gim thiu v bin php cng c v t chc vic gim st mi trng

Mc ch

a ra cc bin php nhm phng trnh, gim nhe hoc n b li cc tc ng tiu cc v cng c cc tc ng tch cc

Bc 8: Son tho bo co MC v trnh cho cc c quan lin quan thm nh

Phn 3: Cc phng php thc hin MC

Xc nh phm vi tc ng

K thut c tnh

- Mng li - Bng lit k


(Checklists)

- Phn tch h thng - kin chuyn - Tho lun trao i gia kin v iu tra

-Lp m hnh -Bng lit k - Phn tch xu hng GIS -Ma trn - Phn tch a tiu ch
(Multi-criteria analysis)

-Phn tch kh nng tip nhn - Phn tch chi ph li ch (Cost benefit analysis)

K thut xc nh phm vi v tc ng:


Xc nh:
Loi tc ng
Ni tc ng Cch thc tc ng

Gin tip
Tch ly Tng h s xy ra

K thut c tnh: d on
Cng tc ng

Cc phng php/cng c ph bin trong MC (1)


Cc phng php ch yu

Nguyn tc la chn cc phng php MC


Ch quan C th cung cp thng tin tin cy trong khong thi gian v ngn sch sn c cho MC C th phn tch xu hng din bin cc iu kin t nhin, KTXH v mi trng C th xc nh v m t nhng vn khng chc chn C th s dng khi xy dng v nh gi cc phng n/kch bn thc hin CQK D hiu v d tho lun i vi cc nh lp CQK v cc bn lin quan tham gia trong qu trnh MC Khch quan Nng lc t chc, phn tch v cung cp thng tin Yu cu ca cc bc thc hin trong quy trnh c im ca cc vn mi trng cn c nh gi c im ca i tng chu tc ng Cht lng v s lng ca d liu chun Trnh chuyn mn sn c ca i ng t vn MC

V d v phng php s dng trong cc bc MC


Ni dung MC
Nghin cu c s

Phng php s dng


Thu thp bo co hin trng mi trng v cc ti liu tng t Lit k, lp khung logic cc vn mi trng

Sng lc/xc nh phm vi, Kho st, so snh quy m v c im lin quan Xy dng mng li h qu n mi trng Tham vn chuyn gia v cng ng Xc nh cc mc tiu mi i chiu vi cc chnh sch, chin lc, tiu chun mi trng trng Tham kho cc CQK ca vng/a phng Phn tch tc ng Xy dng kch bn Xc nh cc ch th v tiu ch mi trng Ma trn tc ng Cc m hnh d bo v tin on Chng ghp bn v GIS Phn tch chi ph/li ch v cc k thut nh gi kinh t khc Phn tch a tiu ch Phn tch kh nng chu ti v xu hng bin i cc yu t mi trng nh gi ri ro

nh gi tin cy ca mt s phng php s dng trong MC


Phng php Phng php kch bn v m phng Mc ch s dng -nh gi tc ng -D bo xu th din bin mi trng -ng gp vo vic xy dng v so snh cc gii php thay th khc -nh gi tc ng -D bo xu th din bin mi trng -ng gp vo vic xy dng v so snh cc gii php thay th khc -nh gi tc ng -nh gi s ph hp vi cc CQK v mi trng -ng gp vo vic xy dng v so snh cc gii php thay th khc -nh gi tc ng -ng gp vo vic xy dng v so snh cc gii php thay th khc tin cy -n gin ho v l cch chia s s hiu bit ca cc h thng phc tp -i hi k nng k thut tng i cao thc hin -Ph hp vi vic phn tch cc tc ng trc tip v cc tc ng tch lu -Ch mc nh tnh, tin cy khng cao v cc ngun pht tn l ngun din -Trnh by trc quan nhng tc ng trong qu kh, hin ti v tng lai - chnh xc ph thuc vo mc chi tit ca c s d liu GIS -C th c s dng tng hp kin ca cc bn lin quan vo mt bn nh gi -L mt phng php nh gi r rng v minh bch, d kim tra -Vic cho im s nh gi cn mang tnh ch quan, v th c th khng chnh xc -Cho php so snh cc tc ng thuc loi kh so snh -Tnh ton chi ph v mi trng cha

Phng php m hnh

Phng php chng ghp bn v GIS

Phn tch a tiu ch

Phn tch chi ph - li ch

-nh gi tc ng -ng gp vo vic xy dng v so snh cc gii php thay th khc

Phn 4: Lng ghp gia MC v CQK

M hnh da theo TM
Qu trnh xy dng CQK Qu trnh MC

Bo co MC

QU MUN

M hnh song song


Qu trnh xy dng CQK

Qu trnh MC

Mt quy trnh MC
lun ph hp

M hnh lng ghp hoan toan


Qu trnh xy dng CQK + MC khng phn bit r rang

Kh nhn bit c vai tr hiu qu ca MC

Mi lin h gia quy trnh lp CQK v quy trnh MC

C s php l v MC Vit Nam


Lut Bo v mi trng 2005 Ngh nh s 80/2006/N-CP ngy 9/8/2006 Ngh nh s 92/2006/N-CP ngy 7/9/2006 ca Chnh ph v lp ph duyt v qun l quy hoch tng th pht trin kinh t x hi Ngh nh s 140/2006/N-CP ngy 22/11/2006 ca Chnh ph quy nh vic bo v mi trng trong khu lp, thm nh, ph duyt v t chc thc hin cc chin lc, quy hoch, k hoch, chng trnh v d n pht trin Thng t s 06/2007/TT-BKH ngy 27/08/2007 ca B K hoch v u t hng dn thc hin Ngh nh s 140/2006/N-CP ngy 22/11/2006 Thng t s 08/2006/TT-BTNMT ngy 8/9/2006 ca B Ti nguyn v Mi trng hng dn v nh gi mi trng chin lc, nh gi tc ng mi trng v cam kt bo v mi trng Quyt nh s 281/2007/Q-BKH ngy 26/3/2007 ca B trng B K hoch v u t v vic ban hnh nh mc chi ph cho lp, thm nh quy hoch v iu chnh quy hoch tng th pht trin kinh tx hi, quy hoch ngnh v quy hoch cc sn phm ch yu