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# ASFAQ AHAMED S (Aeronautical Engg) SATYAM SHARMA (Mechanical Engg)

HINDUSTAN UNIVERSITY
Guide By Mr. Dominic X. Fernando Assistant Professor (Aero)

CONTENTS
Introduction Wing Theory Airfoil Selection

- Front Wing - Rear Wing Airfoil Meshing CFD Analysis Future Work References

INTRODUCTION
An analysis on air flow effects and resulting dynamics on the front and rear wings of Formula SAE using Fluent.

## The motive is to obtain maximum Down force with minimal Drag.

Meshing is done using Gambit.

Analysis is done over different angle of attack for the perfect optimization.

Wing theory Uses the same principle as an aircraft. Aircraft uses lift whereas f1 cars uses down-force. Drag- another important factor on an f1 car.

AIRFOIL SELECTION

Airfoils are the most efficient shape modules which help in achieving maximum lift with less drag. In order to achieve maximum lift the cross section of the wing in an aircraft is optimized in airfoil shape. The lift is produced when there is high pressure acting on the bottom of the wing and a relatively lower pressure on the top. The similar concept is applied inversely on the F1 cars to achieve Downforce

## FRONT WING- NACA 4412

THE FRONT WING OF A FORMULA ONE CAR CREATES ABOUT 25% OF THE TOTAL CARS DOWNFORCE THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST WIDELY USED SPOILER AIRFOIL(FRONT WING), BUT NEEDS TO BE OPTIMIZED AS PER SPEED THIS IS QUITE THICKER AIRFOIL TO OBTAIN MORE DOWNFORCE AT THE GIVEN SPEED

## Rear wing- NACA 2208

The rear wing selection is done based on certain parameters such as
The engine is located at the rear end of the car which produces more force in the rear area

## Should maintain the continuity of the flow with out separation

AIRFOIL MESHING
The meshing is done using gambit.

The partial differential equations that govern fluid flow and heat transfer are not usually amenable to analytical solutions, except for very simple cases. In order to analyze fluid flows, flow domains are split into smaller sub domain (quadrilaterals and triangles in 2D).
The governing equations are then discredited and solved inside each of these sub domains. The sub domains are often called elements or cells, and the collection of all elements or cells is called a mesh or grid.

## CFD ANALYSIS - Fluent

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is extensively used in the racing industry to predict the down force and drag racecars would experience at high velocities. CFD provides numerical solutions to the governing equations of fluid dynamics throughout the desired flow region. It allows for complex problems to be solved without losing the integrity of the problem due to over-simplification. It is this ability to solve large problems that makes CFD an excellent tool for the automotive industry

## ANALYSIS FOR THE FRONT AIRFOIL NACA 4412

At = -3, total lift coefficient is -1.1648825 Static pressure over the airfoil, angle of attack (a= -3)

## ANALYSIS FOR THE REAR WING AIRFOIL NACA 2208

At = -3, total lift coefficient is -0.51088679 Static pressure over the airfoil, angle of attack (a= -3)

## Velocity over the airfoil, angle of attack (a= -3)

FUTURE WORK
DESIGN OF FRONT AND REAR WING USING CATIA. SELECTION OF MATERIAL FOR THE AIRFOIL. TESTING OF PROTOTYPE IN THE WIND TUNNEL. FABRICATION OF THE FRONT AND REAR WING

REFERENCES
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4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Race Car Aerodynamics, Joseph Katz, 1995. The Front Wing, Cranfield Team F1- School of Engineering, Cranfield School Of Aeronautics, Sept.2003. Revised KAD tool to optimize F1 cars through a combined-elitarian geneticfuzzy algorithm- Journal of King Saud University Engineering Sciences, June.2011. Study of F1 car Aerodynamic Rear Wing using computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-Universiti Malaysia Pahang,Dec.2010. Multi-Objective Design Exploration and its Application to Formula one Airfoils- Mathew Watts, Aerospace Engineering BP069-2010. Investigation of Turbulance Created by Formula One Cars with the Aid of Numerical Fluid Dynamics abd Optimization of Overtaking Potential- Milad Mafi, Competence centre, Tubingen, Germany, Nov.2007. CFD Analysis Of PACE Formula-1 Car- Brigham Young University, Canada2011. Aerodynamics for Formula SAE: Initial design and Performance PredictionScott Wordley and Jeff Saunders, Monash University,2005.