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MELISSA AUWERTER ANDREW BENOIT ANDREW BOUGHAN NOELLE BRITT
Urban Spatial Theory
There is a significant body of work on the problems of
Continuing high levels of racial and income segregation, and the concentration of the poor in a small number of high-poverty areas Roots causes of residential segregation—racial discrimination in housing and employment, and the loss of manufacturing jobs Adverse effects ghettos have on individuals (poor public services, lack of access to good jobs, lack of positive role models), and on cities (high-crime areas outward from city centers) Difficulties associated with poverty and minority deconcentration (suburban resistance to affordable housing developments)
Varady. Desegregating the City, Preface.
The Ghetto-Enclave Paradigm
There is much less focus on the ethnic enclave
The events of September 11, 2011 call for a reevaluation
of these two terms and their connotations The ghetto-enclave paradigm
Ghettos are “bad”—negative forms of residential segregation; people forced to live there; arising social tensions Enclaves are “good”—positive forms of residential segregation; voluntary; assets to urban vitality
This paradigm is no longer valid because crime and
disorder exist in both these forms of segregation
Varady. Desegregating the City, Preface.
Spatial clustering is an inevitable part of urban life Ghettos Gated communities Ethnic enclaves Religious communities Senior citizen communities Involuntary and hierarchical clustering (derived from a
ranking systems that reflects superiority based on wealth, status, power, etc.) is undesirable and should public policy measures should address its flaws Voluntary, nonhierarchical clustering is more desirable
Varady. Desegregating the City, Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes, Ghettos No: Segregation and the State”
What is Segregation? Formal Definitions
Clustering: concentration of a population group in space
Formation of any area of spatial concentration
Segregation: process by which a population group,
treated as inferior, is involuntarily forced to cluster in a defined spatial area
Process of the formation and maintenance of a ghetto
Racial Segregation: segregation based on race
Market Segregation: process that operates through the
real estate market which segregates lower income people into class ghettos
Varady. Desegregating the City, Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes, Ghettos No: Segregation and the State”
other than through domination or exclusion Process of the formation of an enclave Varady. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . Desegregating the City.Formal Definitions (cont’d) Exclusion: can be spatial or socioeconomic Spatial exclusion is segregation Socioeconomic exclusion with segregation leads to the formation of an excluded ghetto Quartering: division of urban space into quarters. based on the income or wealth of households Can create or reinforce segregation Congregating: voluntary coming together of a population group for self-protection and advancement of its own interests. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes.
Formal Definitions (cont’d) Withdrawal: voluntary and deliberate separation of a socially and economically dominant population group Reinforces segregation Process that leads to the in the formation of an exclusionary enclave Involved in the formation of citadel May be involved in the formation of an exclusionary enclave Walling out: extreme physical form of withdrawal Fortification: voluntary coming together of a population for protecting. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . strengthening. and symbolizing dominance Process of forming a citadel Varady. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. Desegregating the City.
economic. and/or legal form of segregation May be involved in the formation of a ghetto Walling in: extreme physical form of confinement May be involved in the formation of a ghetto Desegregation: elimination of barriers to free mobility for residents of a ghetto Integration: intermixing of population groups Ongoing. intentional separating of a socially and economically subordinate group and its restrictions to a specific location Extreme social.Formal Definitions (cont’d) Confinement: deliberate. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . nonhierarchical relationships Varady. Desegregating the City. positive.
defined by its position of superior power. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. social.Formal Definitions (cont’d) Enclave: an area of spatial concentration in which members of a particular group congregate to protect and enhance their economic. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . and excludes others from unauthorized entry Citadel: an area of spatial concentration in which members of particular population group. cluster to protect. display. Desegregating the City. and/or cultural development Exclusionary enclave: one whose members occupy positions of superior power. and enhance that position Varady. political.
Formal Definitions (cont’d) Cluster: an area of spatial concentration of a population group Quarter: an area of spatial concentration based on the income or wealth of households Ghetto: an area of spatial concentration used by forced within the dominant society to separate and to limit a particular population group. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. defined as racial or ethnic or foreign. Desegregating the City. inferior by the dominant society Varady. and treated as. and held to be. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” .
The Origins of Clustering and Segregation Cities are and have been These dividing lines are divided along a number of lines that form different patterns of clustering Many of these divisions reflect the conscious acts of those clustered or clustering. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. Desegregating the City. and those in power over of among them based on: Nationality Class Income Wealth Occupation Religion Race Color Ethnicity Color Ethnicity Language Age Household composition o Personal cultural preferences o Lifestyle o o o o o Varady. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” .
Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . Desegregating the City.Lines of Division Three important lines of division: 1) Culture 2) Functional economic role 3) Position in the hierarchy of power Varady.
clothing.Cultural Divisions Easily discernible—differences in language. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . Result in divisions by: Ethnicity Country or nationality Tribe of origin. or descent Religion or belief Lifestyle Varady. etc. parentage. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. Desegregating the City. architecture style.
Desegregating the City.Cultural Divisions (cont’d) Cultural differences Are not dependent on include: Worship Music Parenting Language History Holidays Clothing Family relations their economic productivity for their hold on people. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . nor do they require a relationship of superiority or inferiority for their strength Varady.
g. Desegregating the City.Functional Divisions Divisions based on functional economic roles are the result of either physical or organizational economic logic E. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes.g. Divisions between factories and residential areas Some industries and occupations may require those involved in them to live close to their jobs Can lead to residential division (e. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . company-sponsored housing developments) Functional divisions are independent of cultural differences and express relationships of superiority or inferiority to other functions Varady.
green space occupied. air circulation impeded. MA: Harvard University Press. traffic generated.Functional Divisions and Zoning Zoning: division of a town or county into districts in which certain activities are prohibited and others are permitted The accepted legal embodiment of functional divisions Zoning defined in terms of economic use isn’t always apparent Performance zoning—defines permitted land uses by their environmental impact (e. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” O’Flaherty. shadows cast. Brendan.) While use may separate manufacturing from retail from residential. Cambridge. it is not clear why residential use for one family should be different from the use by two or three families Separation by function is still viewed as the acceptable way to divide city spaces Varady. City Economics.g. (Zoning definition) . Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. 2005. Desegregating the City. etc.
economic power. exploitation. state service. political power. Desegregating the City. social power. domination. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . legal power (slavery) Varady. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. etc. Imperial enclave in a colonial town. black townships of South Africa Class is the major dividing line Gated communities reflect and support power relationships just as much as slums or working-class quarters Power can exist in multiple dimensions Military power.Hierarchical Status Divisions Differences in hierarchical status reflect and reinforce relationships of power.
How Cultural. Functional. Desegregating the City. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . and hierarchical divisions intertwine. functional. sometimes making it hard to distinguish between status and culture Divisions of status and culture interfere with functional division: groups differentiated by culture and status united by economic links need to work and live near each other for efficient production Varady. and contradict each other Cultural divisions can reinforce status differences. overlap. and Hierarchical Divisions Interact Cultural. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes.
Desegregating the City. Functional. but spatial patterns do not always reinforce social relations Varady. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State” . but not close to them Differences in culture and status—within cultural groups. and Hierarchical Divisions Interact (cont’d) Relations between status and function conflict in spatial impact: employers wanting workers to live close to work. it complicates these divisions Social relations determine spatial relations. there can be major differences in class and economic function Because the role of space is not constant and is socially created.How Cultural. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes.
they may not always be desirable The role of public policy in residential segregation should be: To lessen the impact of the three divisions and reduce segregation To facilitate economic integration To increase opportunities To enrich culture To promote intercultural understanding .Conclusion Clustering that reinforces hierarchical power relationships is unacceptable. while social or cultural clustering is more acceptable Although cultural or functional divisions may be voluntary.
State and Federal Government’s Role in Regards to Segregation .
they need the means to impose low status on others (against their wills). this is considered as a monopoly of the state) Government action may (or may not) be involved in regulating these cultural divisions Varady. it is imposed on them Those of higher status maintain their separation voluntarily. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State .The State’s Role on Imposing Segregation Divisions of function and culture are generally voluntary -No group desires low status. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. (In a civilized society. Desegregating the City. -divisions by status require the use of force.
I (1948) • Redlining.denial of mortgage financing to owners of property in certain designated areas. U. • Zoning ordinances enacted by local governments. Warley The Urban Renewal Program. -termed “redlined” and selected primarily because of the race of the residents adopted under Title 1 of the housing Act of 1949 was the basis for slum clearance and redevelopment in the United States The federal highway construction program massively subsidized with federal funds after 1954 was a sign of developing white suburbs of the postwar years (whites saw moving to the suburbs as a motivation to escape the growing black population in downtowns) Whites with cars used highways to separate themselves from blacks Varady.Ghettoization Fostered by the U.S. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State .S. Desegregating the City. -These were finally ruled unconstitutional in Buchanan v. and ruled unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in Shelley v. • Federal courts provided judicial enforcement for restrictive covenants -this was a major device that excluded blacks from large parts of cities and confines them to areas with high percentages of blacks -Violated Civil Rights Act of 1866. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. explicitly allowing for certain areas to be occupied exclusively by whites. Kramer.
Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes.Measures Towards Combating Segregation Expanded provision for public housing in different urban areas (not just the ones with already a substantial subsidized rentals) Ex. Varady. Desegregating the City. In new developments. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State . 30% of those new developments are provided as affordable units (managed by housing associations) Use of tax incentives to promote local economic development and job creation within a broad integrative framework.
Ghettos No: Segregation and the State . Desegregating the City.Measures Towards Combating Segregation (Continued) Intermunicipal agreements with respect to housing low income housing (could be especially useful when dealing) Such agreements might be useful among cities and suburbs (lower income housing in the center of the cities while suburban environments house upper income populations towards the suburbs) Zoning and land use controls can be used to prohibit discrimination in loaning and to steer new construction and development to more stable areas. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. Control of Politian towards environmental advocates Varady.
Varady. protection of the rights of women are steeply progressive income taxes Ownership and control of economic activity. Ghettos No: Segregation and the State .The National Role in Imposing Segregation The range of policies that might reduce segregation should in fact include a wide variety of measures. measures such as steeply progressive income taxes. would just reduce segregation. and environmental protection measures that take into account and just the distribution of burdens and benefits. Chapter 1--“Enclaves Yes. Desegregating the City. in addition to the following listed would reduce inequality (the underlying cause of partitioning) In the long run.
Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .
Housing Studies. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .Introduction Levels of Muslim segregation in many European cities remain high Segregation is primarily voluntary. which makes government intervention difficult Muslim residential clustering seems to be hindering cultural integration due to the absence of social networks Varady.
Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .Introduction The increasing Muslim population in Europe live physically and culturally separate from their host country With the rise of Islamic terrorism. Muslim communities continue to live in fear and nervousness Varady. Housing Studies.
young couples without kids. schools tend to be more segregated than residential neighborhoods School’s reach “tipping point. Housing Studies. and ‘empty-nesters’ are less affected by what happens in the local public schools Varady.Level of Segregation among European Muslim Immigrants In the European cities of Birmingham and Bradford.” white parents withdraw their children and move away. other white families choose not to move into the neighborhood Residential neighborhoods change more slowly Singles. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .
and other ethno-cultural institutions In addition. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .Causes of Muslim Segregation Muslims often self-segregate in a voluntary manner Strong religious ties among Muslim immigrants leads to a desire to self-segregate Muslim neighborhoods are comprised of mosques. Housing Studies. these Muslim communities in Britain have shown a lower level of household income Women are not allowed in the job market Varady. Muslim-oriented stores.
Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism . surrounding area has acquired poor reputation. and quality of schools decrease Area becomes even more desirable to new immigrants Varady. Housing Studies.Causes of Muslim Segregation Discriminatory practices also account for Muslim self-segregation Many other sub-continent Indians are more dispersed Muslim cluster neighborhoods are easy to distinguish High vacancy rates account for neighborhood ethnic population change Whites move out as they feel uncomfortable around foreigners.
and stores Obtain political influence. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism . Housing Studies.Consequences of Muslim Ethnic Clustering Ethnic enclaves have typically been beneficial to immigrants Provide greater access to churches. although continued clustering prevents societal cohesion Enclave-based firms provide better opportunities than the general labor market Varady. social welfare groups.
welfare dependent neighborhoods hinder the educational. non-working. Housing Studies.Socio-Economic Outcomes Neighborhoods influence individuals in positive and negative ways Low income residents can have middle-class role models and middle-class social networks Spatial separation can hinder residents’ socio-economic progress Some theorists believe that the negative aspects of ethnic enclaves outweigh the positive ones Poorly educated. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism . and employment prospects of immigrants in the neighborhood Varady. professional.
Cultural Integration Chicago School of Sociologist Ethnic concentrations of undesirable Supports identity retention and stunt assimilation Census Report for 1930-1950 Segregated groups less likely to become citizen or to speak English and have low intermarriage rates Segregation for Other Races Orthodox Jews self-segregate in order to remain within walking distance of a synagogue Black segregation is largely a product of racial discrimination by realtors. and financial institutions Varady. Housing Studies. landlords. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .
Richard Descoing-Director of Paris Institute of Political Science Second generation immigrants often live in an environment that is outside the French culture They are not in the proper social networks. French High School Graduates Have opportunity to apply to premier school as a citizen Few people from the working class are even aware that the opportunity exists. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .Cultural Integration Cont. Varady. Housing Studies.
Cultural Integration Resistance Conservative Muslims Parents Perceive Sweden as immoral and atheistic Send their children to intercultural school to stop their daughters from going to dances Living in high-density ethnic clusters promotes the maintenance ethnic traditions Can sometimes be inconsistent with the values of larger society Social Pressures Might lead residents of an ethnic enclave to support the practice of “honor killing” Where the father approves the murder of his daughter because she has dated or married a man considered unacceptable to the family Varady. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism . Housing Studies.
Racial Rioting London Bombing After Bombing News reports focused on immigrant enclaves as one of the possible causes Theodore Dalrymple Many fundamentalist Muslims in GB and EU are going through identity crisis Varady. Housing Studies. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .
Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism . Varady. but at the same time they try to expunge everything that is non-Muslim from themselves Suicide bombing is therefore the way suicide bombers overcome the religious doubts with themselves. Housing Studies.Identity Crisis Reasoning One hand they are drawn to Western Culture.
Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .Dalrymple Three Characteristics Why its Difficult for Islam to Integrate into Mainstream UK Refusal to educate women in society that requires two sources of income to achieve prosperity The idea that one is already in possession of the final revealed truth. rather than theocratic Varady. materialistic and democratic. Housing Studies. leading to an inherently superior way of life. inhibits adaptation to a more technically advanced society The hatred of Western society because it is decadent.
through benign quotas. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism . and dispersing minorities across renting stock These policies would not work in the US Varady.Solutions to Segregation Two European Approaches to Ending Segregation Policies seek to “cure” segregation Reduce the incidence of segregation Aims to mitigate the effects of segregation The Cure for Segregation Ethnic mixing through housing allocation Renting housing through positive marking to live in the housing. Housing Studies.
Income Mixing Through Public Housing Restructuring Strongly endorsed in Europe To produce an income mix at the neighborhood level HOPE VI Practice in the United States Involves the demolition of high-rise buildings and their replacement with townhomes and single family homes Busing to Reduce School Segregation Questions whether the resulting demographic mixing would led to reduction in the social isolation of Muslim Children Varady.Solutions to Segregation Cont. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism . Housing Studies.
thereby reproducing segregation Anti-Crime Strategies Moraccan Fathers Walk the streets to develop personal contact with high school dropouts Has been effective in reducing crime Varady.Mitigating the Effects of Segregation Community Development Improving existing social and physical conditions As an alternative to public housing restructuring If a community development results in a higher socioeconomic standard Households probably relocate to other neighborhoods. Housing Studies. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .
Housing Studies.Mitigating the Effects of Segregation Community Cohesion Decker & Rowland Unrealistic to anticipate creating an overall sense of unity on ethnically diverse European housing estates Realistic goal would be to create a sense of mutual trust between different ethnic communities Primary obstacle is the language barrier Varady. Muslim Residential Clustering and Political Radicalism .
New York MTA Prior to 9/11. Muslim and Sikh transit workers were allowed to wear headdresses with no regulations. Sikhs and Muslims settled this historic federal lawsuit on May 30. Sikh and Muslim workers may now wear their religious headdresses freely. After seven long years. MTA established a “brand or segregate” policy due to security concerns Muslim transit workers were required to brand the MTA logo on their headdresses. Sikh Coalition filed charges of discrimination with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission(EEOC). or face segregation This new policy forced Muslims and Sikhs to work out of the public view if they chose not to brand their turban In 2005. 2012 As a result.Sikhs and Muslims vs. The Sikh Coalition .
Sikhs and Muslims vs. New York MTA The Sikh Coalition .
Government increased security measures and immigration policies Results of these policies destroyed the relationship between Muslims and U. CAIR reported 1.S.Muslim Discrimination Post 9/11 U.900 complaints of abuse and violent crimes against Muslims increased by 52 percent between 2003 and 2004 With recent hate crimes. it is difficult for Muslims not to be segregated due to fear Even ten years after 9/11. American Muslim Minorities: The New Human Rights Struggle .S. Government In addition to these legislative violations. there are large debates concerning the construction of mosques around the nation Ashley Moore. Muslims have faced physical abuse and social discrimination In 2007.
Sikh Community Target of Violence Ten Years Later http://www.org/2011/9/12/ten_year s_after_9_11_little .democracynow.
Recent trends have pointed toward a new vision of community which is secular. and oriented toward social responsibility Bruce J. a new sense of community has emerged.. The New Public Spirit .The New Public Spirit Many important events have reshaped the fabric of American life Although Muslim segregation has increased in the U. Schulman. public spirited.S.
public employees in Congress. Since 9/11. Americans are seeking areas for informal social interaction and democratic exchange. Americans spoke about the U. the Pentagon.The New Public Spirit Before 9/11. Government in a negative manner. calling for an end to the big government era.S. and the Post Office have emerged as heroes Despite concerns over security. Bruce J. Schulman. The New Public Spirit .
our nation continues to desegregate and become more diverse Bruce J. Schulman. The New Public Spirit .The New Public Spirit Americans realize they need to build civic communities outside of the home and the marketplace They also realized that physical contact between different ethnicities and races had diminished An overwhelming sense of togetherness and national identity had swept through the nations after 9/11 As the desire for public space and social interaction increases.
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