You are on page 1of 36

Introduction and its application in chemical

engineering
By: Ananto Wimbaji
Sonochemistry
Application of power of sound
to chemical processes:
 Ultrasound can increase
chemical reactivity besides
heat, pressure, light and
catalyst
 Chemical changes by power
of ultrasound @lower
frequency as a result of
generated cavitation
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic:
Sound @ frequency > 20 kHz

Human hearing : 20 Hz – 20 kHz


Conventional Ultrasonic: 20 – 100 kHz
Extended range of Sonochem: 20kHz-2MHz
Diagnostic Ultrasonic: 5 – 10 MHz
Application of Ultrasound
Effect of Ultrasound
Cavitation
Formation, growth & implosive collapse of
bubbles in a liquid.
Cavitational collapse produces intense local
heating (~5000 K), high pressures (~ 1400
atm) , enormous heating & cooling rates
(~>109 OK/sec) and liquid jet stream (~400
km/hr)
Cavitation
Illustration of bubble generation and collapse
Cavitation
Physical, chemical & macroscopic effect of
sonochemistry
Cavitation (Video)
Sonochemistry Apparatus
In Lab /development :
Sonoprobe Transducer
/ horn

Generator

Reaction
Courtesy:
chamber Telsonic
Ultrasonic
Sonochemistry & Chemical
Reaction
Ultrasond assisted
reaction
Type of chemical synthesis of ultrasonic:
- Reactions involving Metal or Solids Surface
- Reactions involving powder and particulate
matter
- Emulsions reaction
- Homogeneous reaction
Luche’s Rule of
Sonochemistry
Possible benefit of
Ultrasound
- Might accelerate reaction or only required less
forcing condition
- Induction period are often significantly
reduced as are exothermic normally
associated with such reactions
- Reactions are often initiated by ultrasound
without the need for additives
- The number of steps that are normally
required can sometime be reduced
- A reaction can be directed to alternative
pathway
Example of Ultrasound assisted
Reaction
Biodiesel production from trans-esterification of
vegetable oil with methanol in presence of
base catalyst:

Vegetable oil + 3 MeOH  3 Me Ester + Gly


Example of Ultrasound assisted
Reaction
Example of Ultrasound assisted
Reaction
Example of Ultrasound assisted
Reaction
Ultrasonic treatment :
Can deliver a biodiesel yield to > 99%.
reduces the processing time from the 1-5
hr/batch to less than five minutes.
Reduce methanol consumption (excess +/- 40
% vs 100% with conventional process)
help to reduce the separation time from 5-10
hr to less than 15 minutes
Other Ultrasonic
Application in Chemical
Engineering
Crystallization
Ultrasound can be extremely useful since:
Can initiate seeding and control subsequent
crystal growth in saturated and super-cooled
medium
Can promote cleaning action that stops
encrustation of crystal in cooling medium and
ensure continuous efficient heat transfer
Crystallization
Filtration

The ultrasonic cavitational energy scrubs each particle's surface as it


flows over the Tray. The cleaning effect produced by water alone is very
effective in removing surface contaminates from the particulate pores.
Chemical additives, added prior to the ultrasonic Vibrating Tray, become
highly reactive in the acoustic field. The Tray is effective for soil washing,
precious metal recovery, and mineral ore extraction
Sieving
Industrial sieves are
normally agitated at low
frequency to help the
product to distribute itself
evenly over the surface
and to help the small
particles go through.
Vibrating the mesh at
ultrasonic frequencies (in
addition to this low-
frequency oscillation) can
improve the rate of flow
dramatically, preventing
the product from blocking
the holes in the mesh and
helping to separate the
small particles from the
large
Mixing & Emulsification
Dispersing of Solid in
Liquid
Oil & water emulsion

up400s_emulsion_p0200.flv
Oil (diesel fuel) & water mixture

Improving burning
characteristics of
heating oils in the
simplest case may be
achieved by adding 5-
10% of water to it and
homogeneously
emulsifying the mixture
in the power-ultrasonic
field. This increases the
burning rate of the
heating oil by a factor of
5-10%
Extraction
Could reduce exraction time up to
10 times
Could reduce solvent used
improves the extract yield
and considerably reduces
undesired extracts
Extraction
P a r a m e te r s C o n v e n tio n a l F A S T E X T R A C T IO N
m e th o d
S o lu te A r te m e s ia L e a v e s A r te m e s ia L e a v e s
S o lv e n t n -H e x a n e n -H e x a n e
R a tio S o lu te :S o lv e n t 1: 6 1 :8
N o .s o f L e a c h in g 09 04
T im e p e r L e a c h in g 5 hours 1 hour
T o ta l E x tr a c tio n T im e 4 5 h o u r s 4 hours
R ecovery 7 5 to 8 0 % 9 0 to 9 5 %
Ultrasound &
Environment
Pollution Abatement
Enhanced Biogas Production
Oilfield remediation
Ultrasound &
Environment
Continuous treatment of liquid wastes with
powerful ultrasound in combination with
ultraviolet radiation has been shown to greatly
enhance the sterilization process
a photochemical oxidation process takes
place leading to sterilization that is thousands
of times more effective than that achieved by
ultraviolet treatment alone
Using this technology for drinking water
purification permits eliminating algae
formation and reducing the chlorine content
to a minimum at which no chlorine odor or
taste is detected
Ultrasound &
Environment
The combination of cavitation,
ultrasound energy, and the
injection of ozone results in an
ultra-fine emulsified mixture
significantly increasing the
reaction surface area.
High local pressures and
temperatures cause - among
other reactions - destruction of
biological protein-molecules,
aromatic hydrocarbons and thiols
Ultrasound in Petroleum &
Petrochemical
Catalyst preparation
Desulfuration of diesel fuel
Gasoline valorization (Octane enhancement)
Ultrasound assisted polymerization
Desulfuration of diesel
fuel
Under the influence of powerful
ultrasound the hydrocarbons are
partially decomposed forming
radicals and releasing free sulfur,
which is subsequently oxidized
and removed. The process is
accompanied by breaking large
hydrocarbon structures into
smaller ones, thereby reducing the
crude oil’s density and viscosity,
making it easier to transport
through pipelines (improving its
ability to flow) and increasing the
amount of lighter oils that can be
recovered during the refinery
Gasoline valorization (Octane
enhancement)
 hydrocarbons can become
restructured (polymerize, condense,
etc.) forming new hydrocarbons with
increased octane numbers when
exposed to high-power ultrasound in
the presence of certain catalysts
 exposing straight low-quality gasoline
to ultrasound with properly adjusted
intensity and exposure time in
presence of correctly selected
catalysts can raise its octane number
significantly and increase its value
 Carrying out this type of processes
requires identifying the right catalysts,
which should be selective with respect
to isomeric components of automotive
gasolines. The highest quality
catalysts known for these processes
CONCLUSION
Ultrasonic could be applied in various aspect
of chemical engineering, range from chemical
reaction, unit operation, petroleum and
petrochemical process and even
environmental problem