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STATISTICS

It is a science of numbers (Applied Mathematics) i.e., Science of collecting, summarizing, presenting, analyzing and interpreting of data. Statistics a collection of numerical data such as Vital Statistics, Trade Statistics etc. Statistic Numerical items which are produced by applying science of statistics such as Mean, SD, SE, etc

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POPULATON
This is a hypothetical or finite collection of observational units (Observational unit is the source that gives the observations) SAMPLE A part of population , generally selected to represent the population whose variable is under study SAMPLING Sampling is a procedure, adopted for selection of some individuals (observational units) as a representative of entire population
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TYPES OF SAMPLING
1. Simple Random Sampling ( Cards, Random table) 2. Systematic Random Sampling ( nth unit) 3. Stratified Sampling ( Reps from all classes) 4. Multi Stage Sampling ( Random States-Districts-TalukasVillages-Systematic random sampling of Houses) 5. Multi Phase Sampling (Montoux- MMR- Sputum) 6. Cluster Sampling ( Hamlets/ Slums / Wards)
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CHARACTERISTICS OF A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE

1. Selected by sampling techniques from population. 2. Difference from population, if any, is by chance.

3. Every member of population has equal chance of being selected. 4. All bias in selection has been ruled out.
5. Chosen as per rules independent of the attribute under study. 6. Sample is sufficiently large to represent the population.
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Statistical Constants
1. Measures of central tendency 2. Measures of Dispersion / Variability 3. Skewness
Positive Negative

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Kurtosis

Measure of flatness or peakedness of a frequency distribution Platy kurtic (relatively flat) Meso kurtic (normal) Leptokurtic (relatively peaked)

Platy kurtic - flat distribution


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Meso kurtic - not too flat and not too peaked

Leptokurtic - peaked

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MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

1. MEAN or ARITHMETICAL MEAN 2. MEDIAN 3. MODE 4. GEOMETRICAL MEAN is used to measure the rate of change. 5. HORMONIC MEAN is used to averaging the rates when time factor is variable and the act being performed is constant.
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MEASURES OF DISPERSION 1. Range 2. Semi inter-quartile range

3. Mean deviation
4. Variance (mean squared deviation)

5. Standard deviation (square root of variance)


Square root of mean squared deviation

2. Co-efficient of variation (S.D. Expressed as % of mean) = SD*100/Mean


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Accuracy & Precision

With the center of the target taken to be the true value of the characteristic being measured and by the rifle shots representing the measured values, there are four combinations of accuracy and precision as depicted in the following slides.
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Inaccurate and imprecise

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Accurate and imprecise

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Precise but inaccurate

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Accurate and precise

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CONFIDENCE LIMITS

Mean 1 SD = 68%

Mean 2 SD = 95 % (1.96 SD)


Mean 3 SD = 99% (2.58 SD) Mean + 6 SD = 99.9997

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