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# Distribution

of Disease
Distribution of disease

## Distribution is an essential component in

descriptive epidemiology and refers to the
study or summary of the frequencies of
disease （ or values of a
measurement ） according to groups defined
by factors such as age, time and place.
Segment Ⅰ the measurement values

of distribution of disease

## Segment Ⅱ distribution of disease

Segment Ⅰ the
measurement values of
distribution of disease

##  Concept of rate and ratio

 Incidence measurement
 Mortality measurement
1. Rate and Ratio
 rate
Number of existing
cases/population at risk x
100,000 per time period
1. The concept of rate and
ratio

## Ratio, is also called relative

ratio, it is the quotient of two
values, which reflects the relative
level of two values and often
expressed by multiple or percent.
A
Rate ＝ （ × 10 0 ％）
B
 proportion
Proportion reflects the proportion
or distribution of parts of certain
entirety and often expressed by
percent.
the number of part
proportion ＝ × 100 ％
the number of entirety
(1) incidence rate
Within a certain time and a certain population
and estimated by counting the number of new
cases of disease.

## IR ＝ number of new cases in a certain population /

number at risk in the same time×k

## k=100% ， 1000‰ ， 1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
Application of incidence rate

## To descript the distribution of disease

To explore the pathogenesis
To put forward the hypothesis of pathogenesis
To evaluate the effect of the prevention and cure
measures.
1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(2) attack rate

## The proportion of persons within a

population who develop a particular outcome
within a specified period of time

## a certain illness develops

AR = ×k
total number of people at risk

k=100% 或 1000‰
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E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(3) prevalence rate

## The proportion of person in a given

population that has a particular disease at a
point or interval of time

## PR ＝ number of new or old cases /

persons at risk in the same time ×k

k=100%, 1000‰,
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E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(3) prevalence rate

## The factors influence on prevalence rate ：

incidence rate and course of disease

P = I×D

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(3) prevalence rate

## Application ： prevalence rate often

represents occurence or epidemic
situation of chronic disease.

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(4) infection rate
Is the proportion affected by a disease of a
investigated and often expressed by present.

## IR ＝ number of affected cases /investigated persons

×100%
Application ： IR can research affected
situation of some infectious disease or
parasitic disease and effect of prevention
and curation.
(5)secondary attack rate ， SAR

## SAR ＝ number of second-affected cases

/susceptible persons ×100%

## Application ： SAR can represent the

intensity of infectious power, analyze
epidemic factor and evaluate the effect of
prevention measurements.
1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
2.mortality measurement
(1)mortality rate

## The proportion of persons within a given

population die from a particular disease.

## MR ＝ death number /average population ×k

k ＝ 1000‰

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
 crude death rate
 Persons within a given population
die from a particular disease, without
distribution of the population.

##  specific death rate

 infant death rate
(1)mortality rate
Application Crude mortality rate represents
total death level, which is synthetical reflection
of culture and health level of country or area.

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(2)fatality rate

## Is the proportion of persons within a

population affected by a particular disease that
dies from the disease within a specified period
of time.
FR ＝ number of deaths /number of diagnosed
patients ×100%

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(3)survival rate
Is the proportion of persons affected by the
disease of interest that lives for at least a
specified period of time.

## SR ＝ number of deaths observed in a

specified period of time/number of diagnosed
patients under observation ×100%

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(4)potential years of life lost, PYLL
e
PYLL = ∑ ai d i
i =1

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
Distribution of disease

epidemic
A dramatic increase above the usual or
expected rate of occurrence of partical events
within a population.

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
outbreak
A sudden ,unexpected increase in the
occurrence of a disease within a
relatively limited geographic area

## The affected patients have the same route of

transmission and source of infection

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
three primary Distribution of
disease
place distribution
time distribution
persons distribution

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
Time distribution
（ 1 ） rapid fluctuation
（ 2 ） seasonally
（ 3 ） periodicity
（ 4 ） secular trend
(secular change)

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
Person distribution of disease
 age  Social class
 sex  Marriage and family
 occupation
 behave
 race

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(1) age
Age is perhaps the most important factor
because there is greater variation in age-
specific disease rates than in rates defined by
almost any other personal attribute. for
example, measles, mumps tend to occur
most commonly in childhood.

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(2) sex
numerous epidemiologic studies have
shown sex differences in a wide scope
of health phenomena, males generally
have higher mortality rates than
females .

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(3) occupation

## Different occupation have different influence

on incidence rate mortality rate of disease
because different physical factor, medical
factor, biological factor and spirit factor can

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(4) race and ethnicity

## Persons with different race and ethnicity

have different genetic factor, custom,natural
condition and religion, which can lead to
different diseases.

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S
(5)social stratum
(6)marriage and family situation

(7)behavior

1957

E P ID E M IO L O G Y A N D
H E A L T H S T A T IS T IC S