Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS

)

Presented by Chellasundari & Pourna

GPS SYSTEMS

NAVSTAR

GLONASS

GPS Segments

Space Segment: the constellation of satellites Control Segment: control the satellites User Segment: users with receivers

GPS SEGMENTS

Space Segment

System consists of 27 satellites in the operational mode: 24 in use and 3 spares 3 other satellites are used for testing Altitude: 20,200 Km

GPS Orbits

Control Segment
Master Control Station is located at the Consolidated Space Operations Center (CSOC) at Flacon Air Force Station near Colorado Springs

Control Segment

GPS Transmitted Signal
Two signals are transmitted on carriers: L1 = 1575.42 MHz L2 = 1227.60 MHz These are derived from the system clock of 10.23 MHz (phase quadrature)  Modulation used is Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

Transmission of data
Amplitude modulation Frequency modulation Phase modulation

Amplitude modulation of a data signal onto a carrier signal

equency modulation of a data signal onto a carrier gnal

Phase modulation of a data signal onto a carrier

GPS Clock Signals

Two types of clock signals are transmitted C/A Code - Coarse/Acquisition Code available for civilian use on L1 provides 300 m resolution P Code - Precise Code on L1 and L2 used by the military provides 3m resolution

GPS Signals

The satellites transmit as part of their unique Spread Spectrum signal a clock or timing signal The range or distance to the satellite is obtained by measuring how long it takes for the transmitted signal to reach the receiver This is not the “true” range due to clock errors - what is obtained is

GPS Position

By knowing how far one is from three satellites one can ideally find their 3D coordinates To correct for clock errors one needs to receive four satellites

GPS: How does it work?

Typical receiver: one channel C/A code on L1 During the “acquisition” time you are receiving the navigation message also on L1 The receiver then reads the timing information and computes the “pseudo-ranges” The pseudo-ranges are then

GPS: How does it work?

Corrected ranges are used to compute the position This is a very complicated iterative nonlinear equation

Navigation Message

To compute your position one must know the position of the satellite Navigation Message - transmitted on both L1 and L2 at 50 bits/s for 30 s Navigation message consists of two parts: - satellite almanac - clock bias

Differential GPS
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Used to improve accuracy Put a “satellite” on the ground at a precise position Differential signal is not “transmitted” on standard satellite frequencies

Uses of GPS
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Airplane and Boat Navigation Continental Drift Surveying Precise Timing Iceberg Tracking Archaeological Expeditions Mobile Multimedia

Conclusion
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GPS will find more civilian uses DOD has promised to eliminate SA Russia has a system known as GLONASS The EU is discussing deploying its own system