Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Agenda – Day One
Introduction Microwave Link Planning Process Flow Chart DTM and Coordinate System

Pathloss 4.0
Summary Module Terrain Data Module

Antenna Height Module
Network Module Diffraction Module
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Agenda – Day Two

Network Module Worksheet Module Diffraction Module Reflection Module Multipath Module

Applying Divesity and Protection

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All rights reserved.0 Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› .Agenda – Day Three Design of Passive Repeaters Interference Analysis Protection and Diversity Practicle use of Pathloss 4.

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‹#› .Microwave Applications Transmission Cell Site / Base Station Interconnect Long haul E1 / 45M / STM-1 transport Local Wireless Links Access Next-to-last mile transport for LMDS. ATM. hub & spoke) Ring (unidirectional path switch ring. WIP Backhaul from digital loop carrier & DSLAM CLEC metropolitan wireless links Architectures Linear (tree & branch. WiMAX. IP) Hybrid SONET / Microwave Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

38 GHz Capacities range from 2 E1s to STM-1 Availability based on: Distance Terrain Precipitation Climate Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.11 GHz “High frequency” = 13 .Microwave Transport Requires line of site Frequency bands “Low frequency” = 2 . ‹#› .

How Far Can You Go ?
Practical limits governed by many factors: Frequency Climate Propagation Anomalies Terrain

Antenna Performance / Center Lines
Rainfall Rate (for high frequencies) Radio Performance These are weighed against your desired . . . Availability Objectives

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How Far Can You Go?

6 GHz (20-60 Km) 11 GHz (10-30 Km)
18/23 GHz (1-8 Km)

Longer

paths may require space diversity receivers Some bands are limited to 2-16 E1 radios

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Frequency Spectrum
AM
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4

Marine

Short Wave - International Broadcast - Amateur
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26

CB
28 30 MHz

VHF LOW Band
30 40 50 60 70 80

FM
90 100
120

VHF
140

VHF TV 7-13
160 180 200 240
300 MHz

Cellular UHF
0.3 0.4 0.5

GSM1800, GSM1900 GPS

UHF TV 14-69
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.4

3.0 GHz

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

12

14

16

18

20

24

30 GHz

Broadcasting Land-Mobile
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Aeronautical Mobile telephony

Terrestrial Microwave Satellite
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All rights reserved.What bands to use? 4 GHz  High capacity band (max STM-1)  Satellite users hinder  Good propagation L6 GHz  Best high capacity band (max STM-1)  Some low capacity channels  Excellent propagation U6 GHz  Best low-mid capacity band (max STM-1)  Very good propagation 10 GHz  Low capacity band (max STM-1)  Low congestion  Adverse rain impact begins Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› .

users Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.What bands to use? 11 GHz  High capacity band (max STM-1)  Some low-cap channels  Adverse rain impact 18 GHz  Low-medium capacity band (max STM-1)  Small antennas  More adverse rain impact  Satellite users growing encroachment 23 GHz  Low-medium capacity band (max STM-1)  Small antennas  More adverse rain impact  Shared with govt. All rights reserved. ‹#› .

How Far Can You Go? Below 8 GHz Minimal influence Above 8 GHz Rain begins to dominate Long paths may be practical up to 12 GHz But only in dryer regions The higher the frequency . ‹#› . . The more significant the impact Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. .

‹#› .Propagation Regions Good Difficult Average Average Good Average Good Average Moderate Difficult Very Difficult Based on Bellcore c Factors Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

Problem only above ~ 20 GHz.Basic transmission loss between two points in free space. in phase can give 6 dB up fades. Diffraction Loss . Rain Attenuation .Basic Propagation Losses Basic Propagation Losses fall into eight well defined categories: Free-Space Propagation Loss .. Fog and Clouds . Reflection Loss/Gain .Significant only above 8 GHz. each using an isotropic antenna.Absorption of EM energy by the oxygen and water molecules in the atmosphere.Losses caused by insufficient clearance over intermediate terrain features Airborne Particles .Sand and dust only above ~ 14 GHz. ‹#› . Atmospheric Absorption .Out of phase signals can cause 35-40 dB of attenuation. All rights reserved. Above ~ 8 GHz. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

‹#› .Propagation Anomalies Super refractive Subrefractive Ducting Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

Path Clearance Two factors are involved The K factor Fresnel zones The K factor Describes the effective curvature of the earth Relative to air density vs. ‹#› .e. temp and humidity Fresnel zones Describe the minimum clearance required for a microwave beam to travel as if through free space (i. elevation Influenced by pressure. All rights reserved. a vacuum) Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

temperature. All rights reserved. ‹#› .Atmospheric Propagation Microwaves travel a straight line in free space If a microwave beam is launched in free space (a vacuum) it will travel in a straight line. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. and humidity. The atmosphere is not free space Vertical density gradients within the atmosphere cause a microwave signal to be curved The density gradients are a function of air pressure.

Class Work. Assignment: D= 20km D1= 14.5km Antenna Hight = 30meter Obstacle Hight = 18meter Freq = 18 GHz Find the First fresnel Zone and Check the Fresnel clearance Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› .5km D2= 5. All rights reserved.

refers to pointto-point fixed links that operate in duplex mode. All rights reserved. In its simplest form the microwave link can be one hop.The Microwave Link ? Microwave radio link. in the context of this course. spanning several thousand kilometers. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› . or can be a backbone. consisting of one pair of antennas spaced as little as one or two kilometers apart. including multiple hops.

All rights reserved. digital microwave radios.The Microwave Link (Cont’d) Antenna Path Antenna Tx Radio Data Multiplex Feeder Feeder Tx Data Radio Multiplex Rx Terminal “A” Rx Terminal “B” The above drawing is functional block diagram of a typical microwave link consisting of set of multiplexers. ‹#› . antennas and transmission lines. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

• • Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. The fundamental aim of a microwave radio link is to deliver sufficient signal power to the radio at the far end of the link to achieve desired performance objectives. ‹#› . All rights reserved.The Microwave Link (Cont’d) • Sometimes radios are configured as outdoor units ( ODU ) and in this case transmission lines are not required and antennas are integrated as part of the radio RF head units. In GSM deployments where roll outs are quick. this is a very desirable feature. For proper operation a microwave link must fulfill LOS condition. This is the challenge of link planning.

All rights reserved. For different frequency bands.The Microwave Link (Cont’d) Unfortunately. it may not be possible to place antennas at those two points and achieve a satisfactory communication performance. capacities and under different propagation conditions. atmospheric conditions and rain effect modify the propagation of microwaves so that even if the link planner can see from point A to point B ( true LOS ). ‹#› . Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. microwave link distances vary. ( The link budget method ). A valuable characteristic of LOS transmission is that we can predict the level of a signal arriving at a distant receiver with known accuracy under non fading conditions. Microwave link performance and availability are predicted using a number of empirical prediction models.

All rights reserved.Microwave Link Planning General design considerations: Specifications of the network and system Preliminary map study and site locations Field survey and site survey Preparation of path profiles Determination of antenna heights Ground-reflection calculations Performance and availability predictions Frequency planning Equipment selection Grounding and safety considerations Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› .

The Planning Process Teams Network User: Fixed. PMP Site Acquisition Team System Engineer LOS Survey Team Transmission Engineer Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. TV. All rights reserved. ‹#› . Mobile. Utility.

‹#› . and distance to critical obstacles Check propagation conditions Classify Path types Site survey Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Field Survey and Site Determination Field Survey shall include: • • • • • • • Verify exact site coordinates Confirmation of LOS Check-up of suspected reflection points.vegetation buildings and other man made obstacles Determination of height of. All rights reserved.

heights of obstructions and vegetations Propagation conditions Frequency interference probabilities Photographs ‹#› Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. coordinates. .Survey Report This report can include the following : • • • • • • • • Confirmation of LOS indicating equipment used for accuracy Site description and layout Antenna and tower heights Path Classifications ( overland paths. All rights reserved. coastal links or water paths ) Path elevations.

Digital Terrian Models (DTM) Digital Terrain Models DTM is a simple digital representation of a portion of the earth’s surface. e. DTM may be used as a digital model of any single-valued surface. . Geological horizons Rainfall or pressure Population density ‹#› Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.g. All rights reserved.

DTM generated from survey data is very accurate. ‹#› . Expensive and time consuming process.Digital Terrian Models (DTM) DTM Generation Most DTM data are derived from three alternative sources Ground surveys Survey data may be input directly into computer systems. Photogrammetricdata capture Based on the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs or satellite imagery. All rights reserved. Cartographic data sources Deriving DTM from cartographic documents Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

.. 1995): Verbal: “one cm represents ten kilometers” Representative fraction: 1:10.000 Graphic scale: 5000 0 5000 1 0 0 0 0 M e te r s a) b) c) d) Area scale: Represents square kilometers ‹#› Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Map Scales A defined dimensional relationship between reality and the map (Robinson et al. All rights reserved.

or. if 2 cm on a map represents 1 km on the ground the scale would be 2 cm = 1 km. All rights reserved. ‹#› . Scale is “unitless” because it is a ratio. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd...Calculate Map Scales For example.

large scale Large scale: 1:50. All rights reserved.000 Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.000 Small scale: 1:250.Examples small vs. ‹#› .

The coordinate values can be spherical (latitude and longitude) or planar (such as Universal Transverse Mercator).Coordinate systems • A coordinate system is a reference system based on mathematical rules for specifying positions (locations) on the surface of the earth. and is specified in terms of units (e. ellipsoid and projection. • Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. degrees. meters). ‹#› .g. A coordinate system is usually defined by a datum. All rights reserved.

‹#› . All rights reserved. Rectangular/plane coordinate systems: Used to locate positions on a flat map.Types of Coordinate Systems Geographic coordinate system: Uses latitude and longitude for locating positions on the uniformly curved surface of the earth. For example Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

Geographic Coordinate System The Equator (latitude) and Prime Meridian (longitude) are the reference points. England is the Prime Meridian. The Cartographic Boundary Files. the Road Network Files and the representative points are disseminated in latitude/longitude coordinates. Usually Greenwich. Prime meridian Equator Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. ‹#› .

60. All rights reserved.34444 instead of 60º20'40" Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Decimal Degrees (DD) Decimal degrees are similar to degrees/ minutes/seconds (DMS) except that minutes and seconds are expressed as decimal values. Decimal degrees make digital storage of coordinates easier and computations faster. ‹#› .

01111=60.34444 DD Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.= 0.01111 (40/3600) Add up the degrees to get an answer: 60º + 0.Example: Converting DMS to DD degrees seconds 60º20'40" minutes 20 minutes.33333 + 0. ‹#› . All rights reserved.33333 (20/60) 40 seconds = 0.

All rights reserved. ‹#› .Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

‹#› .Introduction The following Slides outlines the method of use and the parameters to be used when planning a transmission link In order for a link to operate reliably and provide the quality of service required for the transmission of data the recommendations outlined in ITU –R.F1491 for quality of service and ITU-R. All rights reserved.F1493 for availability of service are used as guide lines Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

Crane.Necessary Data for Microwave Network Design & How to place it in your PATHLOSS Program Pathloss 4. Crane_96 & ITU) Equipment File Terrain Data File (GTOPO303) Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.0 (licensed) Rain File This folder contents Rain data for each area of the world according to 4 standards (Canada. ‹#› .

837-1 A world Map showing the ITU rain region is given on Figure Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Rain File ITU World Rain Regions The ITU rain region are from A to Q are based on Characterstics of precipation for propagation Modeliong Recommendation ITU-R Pn. All rights reserved. ‹#› .

‹#› .Rain File This data will automatically placed in Pathloss Folder after program set up Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

.Equipment This folder contents 4 folders but for our Microwave design we just use 2 folders as the followings MAS which contents Microwave Antenna Data for different Antenna Manufacturer (Andrew . …………. All rights reserved. ERICSSON . RFS .) as shown in Figure MRS which contents Microwave Radio Data for different Manufacturer Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› .

‹#› .Equipment Equipment Folder is available on Pathloss CD and can be download from Pathloss Website Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Set Primary (No Selection) & Secondary (GTopo30 Global 30sec) as shown in Fig. Just we use this data for reference So it isn't allowed to use this data to create path profile How to set this data? Create new folder in your PATHLOSS folder & name it as Gopo30303 Copy inside it the necessary area files (each area has 2 files) Run PathLoss program Go to configure menu & click terrain database as shown in fig. Click Set Up Secondary – Set Directory – choose Gtopo30303 folder then kick OK – click Close – click OK as shown in Fig. All rights reserved. ‹#› .Terrain Data File (GTOPO303) This folder contents the Terrain data for all the world WARNING This data is not accurate so we usually get terrain data from contours maps or from path survey.

Terrain Data File Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. RX level & Link Availability Frequency Plan for overall network Frequency Interference calculations for overall network Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. For our work we shall use PATHLOSS for the following Make Network Configuration Make Path Profile to find antenna height in each station Calculate Link Budget to find Antenna diameters .How to operate PATHLOSS PATHLOSS program is full Microwave Network design software. ‹#› .

‹#› . All rights reserved. In the Summary Module select the Configure dropdown tag Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. When the program is first launched the Summary Module will open.Setting up Pathloss 4 Before PL4 can be used certain parameters need to be set up.

Set up the parameters applicable to your region. ‹#› .Geographic defaults Click on Geographic Defaults and the Geographic Defaults setup box will be displayed. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

Next select Setup Primary and from the dialog box choose Set Directory and configure the path to the directory where the DTM is stored. ‹#› . Set the Primary Data Base for your DTM from the dropdown box. if not omit them. UTM Index File. When the Index Screen appears select Files. but you will need to fill in the UTM Zone numbers. If the DTM requires an index table follow the steps below. The zone numbers are attached at the end of this document. All rights reserved.Terrain Database If you are using a DTM for profile generation then set up the terrain database as described. if not omit this step. Reselect the Configure dropdown menu and select Terrain Database. and then select Import List. The e Configure Terrain Database dialog box will appear. The index list will be imported. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Once this has been completed select Index in the same dialog box.

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. PL4 is now set up for use. Next we will discuss the various modules to be used. Repeat the process for Microwave radio Codes.Directories Close all open dialog boxes and reselect the Configure dropdown menu and select Directories Chose Microwave Antenna Codes and set up the path for the program to locate the directory containing the Antenna Files. All rights reserved. ‹#› .

Summary Module Terrain Data Module Antenna Height Module Work Sheet Module Diffraction Module Reflections Module Multipath Module Print Profile Module Network Module Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Only the basic functions of the modules required for transmission planning are discussed in this document. All rights reserved.Modules PL 4 is divided into a number of modules each module is used to plan different parts of the link or transmission network. ‹#› .

‹#› .Summary Module Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

Call Sign – enter the site call sign code. Owner Code – enter the owner code if available or leave blank.enter an abbreviated name code.Summary Module Site Names . All rights reserved. ‹#› . This code is used when performing interference calculations. Operator Code – enter the operator code if available or leave blank. Latitude – make sure that the same latitude is entered for the same site each time this field in filled in. 7500 or 15000. Longitude – make sure that the same longitude is entered for the same site each time this field in filled in. Tower heights – enter the height of the towers on each site. Frequency (MHz) – enter the frequency band the link will operate in e. Selecting the Report tag can generate a report of the Summary Module.g. Station Code – enter the station code if available or leave blank. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.

000 map and entered into the module manually. If it is not available the data will have to be recorded using a 1:50. It is assumed that a DTM will be used to enter the terrain data. ‹#› . Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.Terrain Data Module From the Modules dropdown menu select Terrain Data and the Terrain Data Worksheet will be displayed.

‹#› . All rights reserved. The DTM records data points every 200 meters and there will be a number of points indicating the same ground elevation. These duplicated data points are not required for the accuracy of the profile so they can be deleted. Set the tolerance to 0 and click OK. tick the Span Missing Files box and click Generate Close the Generate Profile dialog box. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Choose Yes when the Delete Marked Point dialog box opens. Next reselect the Operations dropdown menu and Accept-Reject Changes. Select the Operation dropdown menu and choose Strip Redundant Points.Terrain Data Module (Cont’d): Generate Profile Select the Operations dropdown menu and choose Generate Profile.

All rights reserved. In the structure dialog box enter the structure information. Double click in the Structure Field of the display and select the type of structure you wish to insert. buildings. ‹#› . Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Terrain Data Module (Cont’d): Ground Clutter Ground clutter can be added to the profile in the form of trees. water towers and off path obstructions. If a range of 25 meters high tress had been inserted on to the profile the following dialog boxes would have been used and the profile will be as shown.

. ‹#› Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.Terrain Data Module (Cont’d): Selecting the Report tag at the top of the profile will generate a Report detailing the terrain data.

Antenna Height Module PL4 is able to calculate antenna heights for various combinations of antennas. ‹#› . The combinations most commonly used are Single antennas per site. TR-TR and space diversity antennas using two antennas per site. From the Module dropdown menu select Antenna Heights. TRDR-TRDR. The screen below displayed the Antenna Height information for a diversity link Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Calculating Kmin In order to calculate the antenna heights we need to know what the Kmin value for the link. Record the calculated value. To do this select the Operations dropdown menu and select Minimum K. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› .

333 for 1st Criteria – K and set the 1st Criteria . Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. If a non-diversity path is being planned then the Diversity criteria are left blank. If space diversity is used enter the following under the Diversity Option enter 1.%F1 to 60. This is in accordance with the ITU recommendations for diversity link operations. ‹#› .%F1 to 30. All rights reserved.Set Clearance Criteria Next reselect the Operations dropdown menu and choose Set Clearance Criteria and enter the recorded value of Kmin in the dialog box for the 2nd Criteria – K and set the 2nd Criteria .

500 MHz link this is approximately 8 metres. but will improve the link availability. Click in one of the Antenna Height boxes and the Microwave Antenna Heights dialog box will be displayed Adjust the antenna heights to the nearest metre to the calculated antenna heights. and press F9 again. The calculated antenna heights will be displayed in boxes at the top of the screen. only the diversity calculation is omitted. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. but these greater distances will not improve the link quality significantly. Diversity antennas can be set further apart from the main antenna to combat multipath or ducting. Diversity antenna heights are normally set 200 wavelengths below the main antenna. ‹#› . The antenna height calculations are similar for non diversity links. Press F7 to change the calculation to the Diversity Path.Calculate Antenna Heights Press F9 to calculate the main antenna heights. All rights reserved. in a 7. if used.

All rights reserved. ‹#› . Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Three formats of display are available: Flat Earth Drawn using multiple K values Curved Earth Straight Axis Only drawn for a single K value Curved Earth Curved Axis Only drawn for a single K value The profile below is an example of the Flat Earth Display.Print Profile Module Select Module – Print Profile and the profile to be printed will be displayed.

‹#› . this provides information about the link including the initials of the person planning the link as well as drawing number. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Print Profile Module (Cont’d) The various display options are selected by Clicking on Format and then selecting an option from the dropdown menu. This information should be included with each profile. All rights reserved. The profile Title Block can also be selected from this menu.