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STAT 106

BIOSTATISTICS
First Semester 1428/1429
Section# 15252 & 15254

Teacher: Dr. Ali Ismail


Office:
GB-29 Building # 4
Department of Statistics and Operations Research
College of Science, King Saud University
Textbook:
Elementary Biostatistics with
Arabia
By Dr. Nancy Hasabelnaby

Applications from Saudi

Organizing and Displaying1Chapter :


Data
Introduction:
Statistics:
Statisticsisthatareaofstudywhichisinterestedinlearninghow
to collect, organize, and summarize information, and how to answer
researchquestionsanddrawconclusions.

Biostatistics:
If the information is obtained from biological and medical
sciences,thenweusethetermbiostatistics.

Populations:
Apopulationisthelargestgroupofpeopleorthingsinwhichwe
are interested at a particular time and about which we want to make
somestatementsorconclusions.

Samples:
From the population, we select various elements (or individuals)
on which we collect our information. This part of the population on
whichwecollectdataiscalledthesample.

Sample Size:
The number of elements in the sample is called the sample size
andisdenotedbyn.

Variables:
The characteristics to be measured on the elements of the
populationorsamplearecalledvariables.

Variables:
Thecharacteristicstobemeasuredontheelementsofthe
populationorsamplearecalledvariables.

Example of variables:
-Height
-no.ofcars
-sex
-educationallevel

Types of Variables:

(1)QuantitativeVariables:
Thevaluesofaquantitativevariablearenumbersindicatinghow
muchorhowmanyofsomething.

Examples:
-height
-familysize
-age

(2)

Qualitative Variables:

Thevalueofaqualitativevariablearewordsorattributes
indicatingtowhichcategory
anelementofthepopulationbelong.

Examples:
-bloodtype
-educationallevel
-nationality

Types of Quantative Variables:


Discrete Variables:
Adiscretevariablecanhaveonlycountablenumberofvalues

Examples:
1. Family size (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, )
2. Number of patients (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, )

Continuous Variables:
Acontinuousvariablecanhaveanyvaluewithinacertain
intervalofvalues.

Examples: -height (140 < x < 190)


- blood sugar level (10 < x < 15)

Variable
Quantitative
Discrete

Continuous

Qualitative

1.2.Organizing The Data


Ungrouped (or Simple) frequency distributions :
Used for:
- qualitative variables
- discrete quantitative variables with a few different
values
-

Grouped frequency distributions :

Used for:
- continuous quantitative variables
- discrete quantitative variables with large number of
different values


Example: (Simple frequency distribution or ungrouped
frequency distribution).
The following data represent the number of children of 16
Saudi women:
3, 5, 2, 4, 0, 1, 3, 5, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 4, 1

- Variable = X = no. of children (discrete, quantitative)


- Sample size = n = 16
- The possible values of the variable are: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Simplefrequencydistributionoftheno.ofchildren
no.ofchildren
(variable)
0

Frequency
(no.ofwomen)
1

0.125

12.5%

0.25

25%

0.3125

31.25%

0.125

12.5%

0.125

12.5%

1.00

100%

Total

n=16

RelativeFreq.(R.F.)
(=Freq/n)
0.0625

PercentageFreq.
(=R.F.*100%)
6.25%

Note
Totalofthefrequencies=n =esamplesizeTh
Relativefrequency=frequency/n
Percentagefrequency=Relativefrequency*100%

Frequency bar chart is a graphical representation for


the simple frequency distribution.

Example 1.2:
(grouped frequency distribution)
Thefollowingtablegivesthehemoglobinlevel(g/dl)ofasampleof50
men.
17.017.715.915.216.217.115.717.313.516.3
14.415.815.316.413.716.216.416.117.015.9
14.016.216.414.917.816.115.518.315.816.7
15.915.313.916.815.916.317.415.017.516.1
14.216.115.715.117.416.514.416.317.315.8

-Variable =X= hemoglobin level (continuous, quantitative)


-Sample size = n=50
-Max= 18.3
-Min= 13.5

menGrouped frequency distribution for the hemoglobin level of the 50


ClassInterval
(Hemoglobin
level)

Frequency
(no.ofmen)

Relative
Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency

Cumulative
Relative
Frequency

13.0-13.9
14.0-14.9
15.0-15.9
16.0-16.9
17.0-17.9
18.0-18.9

3
5
15
16
10
1

0.06
0.10
0.30
0.32
0.20
0.02

3
8
23
39
49
50=n

0.06
0.16
0.46
0.78
0.98
1.00

Total

n=50

1.00

Notes
class interval = C. I.
Cumulative frequency of a class interval = no. of values (frequency)
obtainedinthatclassintervalorbefore.
upper limit + lower limit
Mid-Point(ClassMark)ofC.I=
2

ClassInterval

TrueC.I.

Classmid-point

frequency

13.0-13.9
14.0 - 14.9
15.0-15.9
16.0-16.9
17.0-17.9
18.0-18.9

12.95-13.95
13.95 - 14.95
14.95-15.95
15.95-16.95
16.95-17.95
17.95-18.95

3
5
15
16
10
1

lowerupper
limitslimits
(L.L)(U.L.)

TrueTrue
lowerupper
limitslimits

(13.0+13.9)/2=13.45
(14.9+14.9)/2=14.45
15.45

16.45
17.45
18.45

Displaying grouped frequency distributions:


Forrepresentingfrequencyorrelativefrequencydistributions,wehave
Thefollowinggraphicalpresentations:
Histograms
Polygon
Curves

Frequency Histogram of Hemoglobin level(in g/dl) of


healthy men aged 20-24
20

Relative Frequency Histogram of Hemoglobin


level(in g/dl) of healthy men aged 20-24

0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00

15
10
5
0
13.45

14.45

15.45

16.45

17.45

13.45

18.45

Hemoglobin level

15.45

16.45

17.45

18.45

Hemoglobin level

Frequency Polygon of Hemoglobin level(in g/dl) of


healthy men aged 20-24

Frequency Polygon and Histogram of Hemoglobin


level(in g/dl) of healthy men aged 20-24

20

20

15

15

10

14.45

10

0
12.45 13.45 14.45 15.45 16.45 17.45 18.45 19.45
Hemoglobin level

0
12.45 13.45 14.45 15.45 16.45 17.45 18.45 19.45
Hemoglobin level

Frequency Curve of Hemoglobin level(in g/dl) of healthy


men aged 20-24

18

Cumulative frequency ogive of the Hemoglobine


level

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
12.45

13.45

14.45

15.45

16.45

17.45

18.45

19.45

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Mid 13.45 14.45 15.45 16.45 17.45 18.45
Point

Forrepresentingcumulativefrequencyorcumulativerelativefrequency
distributions:
CumulativeCurves
CumulativePolygon(ogives)