You are on page 1of 15


Shailendra Kumar Sch. No. 122110105 1st year M. Plan (UD) Dpartement of architecture and planning MANIT Bhopal


The art and science of obtaining information about an object without being in direct physical contact with the object - Jensen (2000) The science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation - Lillesand and Kiefer (2000)

HISTORY OF REMOTE SENSING Development of photography

Invention of photography In the 16th century: Pin-hole Camera Obscura (Latin meaning Dark Room) In the early 19th century: Invention of film with silver iodide 1826 first photo by Nipce Daguerre fixing image on a film Film camera Black and white Color Infrared Digital camera Multiple bands Imaging techniques Image type Scanner type

Photo by Talbot (1840) Am. Museum of Photography

ADS40 Aerial Camera Leica-Geosystems

HISTORY OF REMOTE SENSING Development of platform

Balloons Birds Airplanes Artificial satellites Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)

HISTORY OF REMOTE SENSING Development of software Developments

Command line interface Graphical user interface Integration of photogrammetry, GIS and remote sensing Internet and network Major companies (products) Leica-Geosystems (Imagine) ESRI (ArcGIS) PCI Geomatics (Geomatica) Intergraph ER Mapper ENVI HIPS MicroImages Clarke Lab (Idrisi) Open source (GRASS) Pixoneer (PG-Steamer) AGI Multispec

HISTORY OF REMOTE SENSING Development of hardware

Analog tools Streoscope Analog Stereoplotter Digital tools Digital cameras Scanners Digital photogrammetric workstations




Electro-magnetic radiation which is reflected or emitted from an object is the usual source of remote sensing data. However any media such as gravity or magnetic fields can be utilized in remote sensing.

Remote Sensing Schematic Sensor Platforms EMR Source Data Transmission

Target / Interaction Data Recording / Storage / Analysis


C 12 65 28 33 76

D A A. Radiation and the atmosphere C. Energy recorded and converted by sensor B

B. Interaction with target

D. Reception and processing

E. Interpretation and analysis

Text by the Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing


Fig Description 1. Energy Source or Illumination (A) - the first requirement for remote sensing is to have an energy source which illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to the target of interest. 2. Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) - as the energy travels from its source to the target, it will come in contact with and interact with the atmosphere it passes through. This interaction may take place a second time as the energy travels from the target to the sensor. 3. Interaction with the Target (C) - once the energy makes its way to the target through the atmosphere, it interacts with the target depending on the properties of both the target and the radiation. 4. Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) - after the energy has been scattered by, or emitted from the target, we require a sensor (remote not in contact with the target) to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation. 5. Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E) - the energy recorded by the sensor has to be transmitted, often in electronic form, to a receiving and processing station where the data are processed into an image (hardcopy and/or digital). 6. Interpretation and Analysis (F) - the processed image is interpreted, visually and/or digitally or electronically, to extract information about the target which was illuminated. 7. Application (G) - the final element of the remote sensing process is achieved when we apply the information we have been able to extract from the imagery about the target in order to better understand it, reveal some new information, or assist in solving a particular problem


1. 2. 3. 4. Military applications Local governments State and federal institutions Private sector applications


1. Military applications 3. State and federal institutions Natural resources management Change monitoring Social infrastructure management Physical environment monitoring Transportation

Combat support Target monitoring National security UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) imagery processing 2. Local governments Imagery as the background of city and county maps Data for environmental assessment Planning and development support Engineering project support Change monitoring

4. Private sector applications Energy

Water Engineering Business support Agriculture Mining and Survey


There are various technique used in remote sensing but we can broadly categorized the technique into namely: Conventional technique Modern technique Conventional technique: This technique use traditional method such as field survey, field equipment, manual recording, field work and aerial photography. we sense our surroundings with out eye-brain system we are determining the size, shape, and color of objects from a distance by collecting and analyzing reflected visible light. This technique uses visible rage of radiation. This survey is done when there is need of detailed and exact information of particular area is required.
Modern technique: This technique uses modern remote sensing equipment such as satellite, radar etc. to get the generalize information of an area. In this technique visible and non visible range of radiation are studied.

Conventional technique vs remote sensing

Conventional Technique It comprise of field work, aerial photography and visible range of radiation. Most of the works are manual. Provides detailed information about an area. This is useful for survey of small area. It requires lots of time for collecting data. The process is very slow and requires huge amount of human inputs and finance. The information we get is limited to an area so we cannot generalize the information over the large area. Its requires lots of mathematical method to analyze the data. It doesnt work in bad weather condition. This technique works well in an area where there is geographically good for human.

Remote sensing It comprise of visible range and non visible range of radiation. Most of the work are done through computer and satellite. Provides genearal information about an area. This is useful for survey of larger area. It requires less amount of time for collecting data. The process is very fast and requires huge finance at the start but provide information for long time and at regular intervals. Its requires interpretation of data and little of mathematical method to analyze the data. It work in all weather condition. This technique works well in all areas. These technique is far better than conventional technique.

BIBILIOGRAPHY - United StatesShare Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) Dr. Punyatoya Patra (Associate Professor, Aditi Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi) Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 2, No. 2, 2008- 100 -Evaluation of the Use of Remote Sensing Techniques for Highway Alignment Layout Basim K. Jrew 1), Abdul Razzak T. Ziboona 2) and Deleen Mohamed Saleh2)