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Chapter 1

Living in a Network-Centric World


Chapter 1

Note for Instructors
• These presentations are the result of a collaboration among the instructors at St. Clair College in Windsor, Ontario. • Thanks must go out to Rick Graziani of Cabrillo College. His material and additional information was used as a reference in their creation. • If anyone finds any errors or omissions, please let me know at: •


Chapter 1

Communicating in a Network-Centric World


Chapter 1

Global Access

• The globalization of the Internet has succeeded faster than anyone could have imagined. • The manner in which social, commercial, political and personal interactions occur is rapidly changing to keep up with the evolution of this global network.
CCNA1-4 Chapter 1

Networks – Behind the Scenes
• Networks are more than just connecting cables. • They are a complex and sophisticated combination of protocols, software and hardware. • Security and Privacy • 24 x 7 availability • Quality of Service • Video on Demand • Voice over IP • Redundancy and backup • Mission critical applications and user expectations • Wireless
CCNA1-5 Chapter 1

• Video communication was one-way using the television. • The telephone was used for voice and the post office delivered most of the written communications. CCNA1-6 Chapter 1 .Networks – The Early Days • Early communication relied on face-to-face conversations.

• Communications between computers was not easy and required a host (no pun intended) of resources to accomplish the simplest data transfer.Networks – The Early Days • Early networks were limited to character based information. CCNA1-7 Chapter 1 .

Networks – Today Silver and Diamond Cell Phone $1.SIMULTANEOUSLY. Video. Audio. graphics CCNA1-8 Chapter 1 . Text. • Voice.3Million • Today’s networks carry multiple types of information through Wind Energy Cell Phone Charger many types of devices .

Networks – Today – A Global Community CCNA1-9 Chapter 1 .

• Data networks that were once only used to transport business information are now used to improve our quality of life no matter where we live.Networks Supporting The Way We Live • The Internet has quickly become an integral part of our daily routines. CCNA1-10 Chapter 1 .

CCNA1-11 Chapter 1 . • IM . Internet resources can help you. • Podcasting: Sharing recordings with a wide audience (Apple iPods) • Wikis: • A collaboration tool.Instant Messaging: • Internet Relay Chat (IRC) • Blogs (Weblogs): • Personal opinions on any conceivable subject.Networks Supporting The Way We Live • In the course of the day. Gives people the opportunity to work together on shared documents.

Networks Supporting The Way We Learn • E-Learning CCNA1-12 Chapter 1 .

CCNA1-13 Chapter 1 .Networks Supporting The Way We Learn • Online discussions and access to resources.

Packet Tracer CCNA1-14 Chapter 1 .Networks Supporting The Way We Learn • Tools .

CCNA1-15 Chapter 1 . messaging. and telephony. • Different companies use different types of networks. video.Networks Supporting The Way We Work • Business networks evolved to enable the transmission of many different types of information services. including e-mail.

Networks Supporting The Way We Work CCNA1-16 Chapter 1 .

Networks Supporting The Way We Work CCNA1-17 Chapter 1 .

hotel and car reservations and much. music and movie downloads. CCNA1-18 Chapter 1 .Networks Supporting The Way We Play • The entertainment and travel industries have made use of the Internet to provide online gaming. online travel bookings. much more.

Networks Supporting The Way We Play • Some of the most innovative developments in network technology have come from the increasing demand for entertainment. CCNA1-19 Chapter 1 .

• Communications between individuals is successful if the meaning of the received message is the same as the meaning of the message that was sent. • Speed and delivery of the message. • Agree on the method.Communications – What is it? • Communications can take many forms and occurs in many different environments. for communicating with each other: • Identify the sender and receiver. • We establish rules. • Confirmation that the message was received. • Common language. CCNA1-20 Chapter 1 . or protocols.

• The quality of the pathway between the sender and the recipient. we use the same basic criteria to judge successful communication. • The amount of time allotted for successful communication. • The number of other messages being transmitted simultaneously on the communication network.Quality • For data networks. CCNA1-21 Chapter 1 . • However. • The number of times the message has to change form or be redirected or re-addressed.Communications . there are external factors that can affect the message.

Message Complexity Message Size Message Importance CCNA1-22 Chapter 1 .Quality • There are also internal factors that can affect successful communication.Communications .

Quality • It is also more difficult to deliver a large.Communications . bulky package successfully and without damage than it is to deliver several smaller packages. CCNA1-23 Chapter 1 .

Network As A Platform • All networks have 4 basic elements in common: Rules (protocols) to govern the handling of the message. Medium that is used to interconnect devices and can transport the messages from one device to another. Messages that travel from one device to another. Devices on the network that exchange messages. CCNA1-24 Chapter 1 .

CCNA1-25 Chapter 1 .Network As A Platform Messages take many forms.

CCNA1-26 Chapter 1 .Network As A Platform Media on a network can be varied.

Network As A Platform Devices on a network – Common Symbols CCNA1-27 Chapter 1 .

Routing Protocols CCNA1-28 Chapter 1 . FTP • Some Other Protocols: • TCP/IP Protocol Suite.Network As A Platform Rules on a network seem almost endless – but they’re not. • Other Application Protocols: • DNS. DHCP. Ethernet.

4. 3.Putting It all Together 1. Passed among LAN devices. NIC generates signals. CCNA1-29 Chapter 1 . 2. Exit the local area (router). Converted to Binary.

Putting It all Together The many interconnected devices worldwide are often represented by a cloud. CCNA1-30 Chapter 1 . Bits are transmitted to devices that interconnect the networks. 5.

7. The destination device converts the bits into human readable form.Putting It all Together 6. CCNA1-31 Chapter 1 . Passed among local devices at the destination.

5 1 2 3 4 6 7 CCNA1-32 Chapter 1 .Putting It all Together At each of these steps. there are protocols that define the rules for device communication.

it always helps to know what you’re doing. CCNA1-33 Chapter 1 .Putting It All Together • Of course.

Converged Networks • Traditional telephone. television. CCNA1-34 Chapter 1 . and computer data networks each have their own individual versions of the four basic network elements. radio.

• A platform defined as a converged network.Converged Networks • Technology advances are enabling us to consolidate these disparate networks onto one platform. CCNA1-35 Chapter 1 .

Converged Networks CCNA1-36 Chapter 1 .

The Architecture of the Internet • The term Network Architecture: • Technologies that support the infrastructure • Programmed services and protocols that move the messages across that infrastructure. • There are 4 basic characteristics for networks in general to meet user expectations: • Fault tolerance • Scalability • Quality of Service (QoS) • Security CCNA1-37 Chapter 1 .

The Architecture of the Internet Fault Tolerance CCNA1-38 Chapter 1 .

CCNA1-39 Chapter 1 . was the result of research funded by the United States Department of Defense (DoD). • Early network researchers looked at the existing communication networks. • Fault tolerance was the focus of the initial internetwork design. to determine what could be done to improve the fault tolerance level.The Architecture of the Internet • Fault Tolerance: • The Internet. which were primarily for the transmission of voice traffic. in its early inception.

The Architecture of the Internet Circuit Switched – Connection-Oriented Networks CCNA1-40 Chapter 1 .

The Architecture of the Internet Packet Switched – Connectionless Networks CCNA1-41 Chapter 1 .

The Architecture of the Internet Circuit Switched Connection-oriented Dedicated Circuit Guaranteed level of service (Bandwidth. QoS) Packet Switched Connectionless Shared Circuit Messages divided into packets Inefficient use of Medium Single path. multiple possible paths Chapter 1 . no redundancy CCNA1-42 Efficient use of Medium Fault Tolerant.

The Architecture of the Internet Scalability CCNA1-43 Chapter 1 .

regional Sprint. AT&T. provide Tier 3: Provide and service to end (Verizon.The Architecture of the Internet • A good example of scalability is the Tier architecture of the Internet. users and are usually connected cable systems. Tier Tier1: 2:ISPs Pay provide Tier 1 providers national for and connectivity international connections. service. etc. Internet Backbone CCNA1-44 Chapter 1 .) through Tier 2 providers. NTT.

The Architecture of the Internet • Additional providers can be added relatively easily with no disruption of current services. THAT is scalability! Internet Backbone CCNA1-45 Chapter 1 .

The Architecture of the Internet Quality of Service (QoS) CCNA1-46 Chapter 1 .

The Architecture of the Internet Quality of Service (QoS) CCNA1-47 Chapter 1 .

The Architecture of the Internet Quality of Service (QoS) CCNA1-48 Chapter 1 .

The Architecture of the Internet Security CCNA1-49 Chapter 1 .

Hashing Algorithms. Checksum Ensuring Availability: Combating virus attacks. Redundant Architecture CCNA1-50 Chapter 1 . Firewalls.The Architecture of the Internet Security Ensure Confidentiality: Strong authentication and appropriate encryption Communication Integrity: Digital Signatures.

Trends in Networking • Increasing number of mobile users • Proliferation of network capable devices • Expanding range of services CCNA1-51 Chapter 1 .

Chapter 1 CCNA1-52 .Careers • Information Technology and networking careers are growing and evolving as fast as the underlying technologies and services. As networks increase in sophistication. the demand for people with networking skills will continue to grow.

• The network is the users and their: • Needs If IT doesn’t find a way. the users will! • Expectations • Requirements • Uses CCNA1-53 Chapter 1 . • The IT (Information Technology) department is not the network.“IT” is not the Network – it IS the users.

• We have too much to do already. • You don’t know about networks. • We can’t give them access on our network. • That would breach our security CCNA1-54 Chapter 1 . so we can’t do that. • We can’t allow that application on our network. • We don’t support MACs.A Shift in Attitude • Old school IT doesn’t work any more. • We don’t support that.

• Just as important. and sometimes even more important. • Tomorrow’s IT professionals will need even more.Technical and Soft Skills • Networking professionals need more knowledge and skills today than ever before. are the soft skills: • Attitude • Enthusiasm • Communications skills • Professionalism and Ethics CCNA1-55 Chapter 1 .