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of Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders

1. DESCRIBES the trait – defines the phenomenon and then considers its 2. DEVELOPMENTAL biology (changes throughout one’s lifespan) 3. ECOLOGY (niche, costs/benefits in context,) 4. EVOLUTION (changes between generations, ancestors, descendents, fitness; genes, memes) 5. PHYSIOLOGY (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, and their communications with each other)

 Schizophrenia described
Schizophrenia: A serious mental disorder characterized by: • Disordered thoughts • Delusions of persecution or grandeur • Hallucinations (mostly auditory) • Behaviors (withdrawn or detached, odd movements))

 Negative symptoms: (characterized by deficit or absence) • social withdrawal. abnormal movements. . Positive symptoms: (known by their presence in excess) • delusions. or thought disorders. and reduced motivation. lack of affect. hallucinations.

hallucinations. lack of affect. and reduced motivation.  Negative symptoms: (characterized by deficit or absence) • social withdrawal. Positive symptoms: (known by their presence in excess) • delusions. or thought disorders. . abnormal movements.

schizophrenia).. 60% genes vs 40% environment). . about 50% would inherit the disorder.g.. An incidence less than 50% suggests that the disease is determined by multiple genes and that only a susceptibility is passed on. • Heritability: In its simplest form. if schizophrenia were determined by a single dominant gene. It is not a measure of the amount of contribution (e.g. about 75% of children from schizophrenic parents would get it.Heritability • Heritability is a statistical concept that estimates the relative contribution of genetic factors to variability in a trait (e. If it was recessive.

Clearly.Heritability  Evidence for heritability • Concordance rates: Most studies suggest between 25-40% concordance in identical twins and about 520% in fraternal twins. the environment is an important contribution .

amphetamine psychosis. increased D3 & D4 receptors in mesolimbic system. treatment for Parkinson‟s disease • Additional evidence: increased DA activity. • Supporting evidence: drug treatment. . Biochemical Causes • Dopamine Hypothesis: schizophrenia is caused by excessive dopamine activity in the mesolimbic system.


a nonspecific dopamine receptor blocker. Pharmacology of Schizophrenia  Chlorpromazine: A phenothiazine • A “typical neuroleptic”. first prescribed antischizophrenic drug.  Clozapine: • An “atypical neuroleptic”. an antipsychotic drug that blocks D4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Little effect on D2 receptors .

. caused by damage to the afferent axons or long-term blockage of neurotransmitter release.  Supersensitivity: • The increased sensitivity of neurotransmitter receptors. characterized by involuntary movements of the face and neck.Consequences of Long-Term Drug Treatment of Schizophrenia (collateral damage?)  Tardive dyskinesia: • A movement disorder that can occur after prolonged treatment with antipsychotic medication.

• Frontal lobe size • Ventricle size • Cerebral gray matter decreases .Evidence for neurological abnormalities in schizophrenia  Schizophrenics with negative symptoms have similar symptoms as those with frontal lobe damage.

Possible Causes of the Brain Abnormalities is schizophrenia Epidemiology in populations.) (The study of the distribution and causes of diseases • Research suggest several environmental factors: -Season of birth: greatest during winter months -Viral epidemics: associated with viral diseases -Latitude: increased incidence further from equator -Prenatal malnutrition: ? -Rh incompatibility: ? -Maternal stress: ? NEW: parasite infection? .

Copyright © 2004 Allyn and Bacon .

Copyright © 2004 Allyn and Bacon .

Copyright © 2004 Allyn and Bacon .

Copyright © 2004 Allyn and Bacon .

Areas of tissue loss are correlated with symptoms (temporal lobes with auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia is not a gradual degenerative disease like Parkinson‟s or Alzheimer‟s diseases. • Appears to involve loss of dendrites. • The frontal cortex seems to be involved in most cases of schizophrenia (hypofrontality) . • Does not appear to involve cell death and „gliosis‟ (replacement of neural tissue by glia). for example). Degenerative process or sudden cell loss? • Woods (1998) found that the cell loss in schizophrenic patients appears to occur suddenly during late adolescence or early adulthood.

 The cause of schizophrenia now appears to be a disturbance of normal brain development. • Genetic predisposition may make individuals more susceptible • Obstetric complications may cause individuals without genetic predisposition to develop schizophrenia .

 Schizophrenia  Hypofrontality (caused by a reduction in cell volume in the dorsolateral frontal cortices) is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  Dopamine hypothesis suggests that hypofrontality results in a disruption of normal glutamate activity from the frontal cortex to the mesolimbic system. Several studies have shown good results with negative symptoms .  NMDA agonists cannot be used because they would cause seizures.  Hypofrontality also results in an increase in dopamine activity in the mesolimbic system which is associated with positive symptoms. but glycine may be effective in treating schizophrenics since it is also an NMDA agonist.

sleep disturbances.Affective Disorders  Description: • mood disorder. includes sustained depression and cycling of depressive & manic episodes. • May manifest irritability. gulit . ennui. hyperactivity. inflated or depressed feelings of selfesteem.

Perhaps as many as 25% over lifetime. includes major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.Major Affective Disorders  Description: • A serious mood disorder. • May effect as many as 5% of US population in a given year. .

 Bipolar disorder: • A serious mood disorder characterized by cyclical periods of mania and depression. . Major depressive disorder: • A serious mood disorder that consists of unremitting depression or periods of depression that do not alternate with periods of mania.

SE) .  Major depressive disorder: • Less likely caused by single gene than bipolar disorder. Its location still not confirmed. but heritability studies reveal strong link.Genetic contributions: • Bipolar disorder may be caused by a single dominant gene. • Amine hypothesis: deficiencies in activity of one or several amine neurotransmitter systems (NE.

.  Serotonin specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI): inhibits the reuptake of serotonin without affecting the reuptake of other neurotransmitters.WHERE DRUGS might act gives clues about the components of the system  Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit the reuptake of specific neurotransmitters (norepinephrine and serotonin)  Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): Prevent degradation of NT in synapse.

WHERE PHYSIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS might act gives clues about the components of the system Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) involves a brief electrical shock that induces a seizure. used therapeutically to alleviate severe depression when medication is not effective. Has been useful in some cases of depression. . Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) involves a weak electrical field and electrical current within the brain.

cerebellum. thalamus.  increased size of the cerebral ventricles may suggest the loss of neural tissue. . and temporal lobes. basal ganglia.WHERE brain structures may seem atypical or damaged gives clues about the components of the system  Brain abnormalities: evidence of differences in the prefrontal cortex.  Silent cerebral infarction (SCI): A small cerebrovascular accident (stroke) that causes minor brain damage without producing obvious neurological symptoms. hippocampus.

suggests a close relationship between REM sleep and mood. Total sleep deprivation has an antidepressant effect but cost is not worth the benefit . is one of the most effective antidepressant treatments.WHERE environmental influences affect symptoms gives clues about the components of the system Role of Circadian Rhythms (involving sleep/wake cycles) Selective deprivation of REM sleep through EEG monitoring.

and craving for carbohydrates during the winter months • Symptoms can be mitigated by daily exposure to bright light. sleep disturbances. lethargy. Role of Zeitgebers Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): • A mood disorder characterized by depression. .

. use your understanding of the DEEP disciplines … 3.TO ASK GOOD QUESTIONS 1. consider the level of organization and the ways these levels communicate with each other. Consider the quality of the description and 2.