You are on page 1of 26

 dependent clauses that must be joined to

independent clauses  describe nouns and pronouns  often placed in a sentence right after the noun they describe  add details to sentences by functioning as adjectives

whom. which.  Also called relative clauses. that.ADJECTIVE (RELATIVE) CLAUSES  Adjective clauses begin with one of the relative pronouns such as who. where . 3 . whose.

 The lady who used as subject in the clause teaches in Political Science department is my mentor. (Relative pronoun as the subject of the clause) 4 .Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses  Who  Refers to people.

(Relative pronoun as the object of the clause)  The student of whom he spoke was a foreigner. used as object or object of preposition (Formal grammar recommends whom. in the object position)  Sally. who(m) he knew. not who.Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses  Whom  Refers to people. arrived yesterday. (Relative pronoun as the object of a preposition) 5 .

 The ring that Jamie wears is from her husband.Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses  Which or that  Refers to things. animals  The watch which Ken bought was expensive.  The lion that escaped last night was captured. (Note: the sentence using which is more formal than the one with that) 6 .

Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses  Whose  Refers to  The father whose child is missing is frantic! possession/ownership  The company whose manager has resigned is in dire straits. 7 .

Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses  When  Refers to a time (in +  I will never forget the day year.  I will never forget the day I graduated.). on + day.  I will never forget the day that I graduated. 8 .  It can be omitted when I graduated.... in + month.  I will never forget the day on which I graduated.  It cannot be a subject.

in + city.  The house in which + school.. in. he stays is old. 9 . a preposition (at.  The house that he to) usually must be stays in is old...  The house which he  It can be omitted but stays in is old.  It cannot be a subject.Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses  Where  Refers to a place (in + country.). added.  The house he stays in is old. at  The house where he stays is old .

Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses  Why  Refers to reason  It can be omitted  I don’t know why he winked.  I don’t know the reason he winked.  I don’t know the reason why he winked. 10 .

 Adjective Clauses: Restrictive & Non-restrictive Clauses Restrictive Clauses are necessary for identification—tell exactly which thing or person DO NOT have commas around clause Non-restrictive Clauses are interesting with extra information -but don’t identify or tell “which one” ALWAYS have commas around clause Also known as identifying or Also known as nondefining clauses identifying or non-defining clauses 11 .

Restrictive Adjective/Relative Clauses Examples:  The soccer player who scored the goal is from Liverpool.  The girl that borrows my book is my cousin.  The district where I live is near the post office. 12 .

Restrictive Adjective/Relative Clauses Examples:  Ms.  William decided to reject the offer. went to Korea last winter. Tan. is in the backyard. 13 . who is my English tutor. which is barking.  My dog. which upset his manager.Non.

My brother who lives in Bukit Timah is an accountant. who lives in Bukit Timah.  This sentence suggests that I only have one brother. “Who lives in Bukit Timah” identifies this brother.Compare Restrictive & Non-restrictive Clauses 1. 14 . “who lives in Bukit Timah”. not the one who lives in Clementi.  This sentence suggests that I have more than one brother. is an accountant. My brother. 2.

Which is logically correct? 1. My father who is a taxi driver doesn’t like to exercise. who is a taxi driver. doesn’t like to exercise. 15 . My father. 2.

Answer 1. (This suggests you have more than one father!) 16 . My father who is a taxi driver doesn’t like to exercise. doesn’t like to exercise. who is a taxi driver. (Correct!) 2. My father.

My sister who is a doctor is not married.Which is logically correct?  Situation: You have 3 sisters and you have already made that clear in preceding sentences. who is a doctor. is not married. 17 . and one a model. 2. 1. My sister. One is a doctor. one an air stewardess.

so it’s identifying. My sister who is a doctor is not married.) 2.) 18 . (Correct! This tells which sister . is not married.Answer 1. who is a doctor. (Identifying information should not have commas around it. My sister.

2. Paul Smith. is from England. who is an excellent researcher . Paul Smith who is an excellent researcher is from England. 19 .Which is correct? 1.

who is an excellent researcher .Answer 1. so the adjective clause needs commas. is from England. (Correct!) 20 .) 2. (Note that proper nouns are considered already identified. Paul Smith. Paul Smith who is an excellent researcher is from England.

which is howling. 2. is making me nervous. is making me nervous. that is howling. 21 . The wind. The wind.Which is correct? 1.

(Correct!) 22 . The wind.Answer 1. (Never use commas with a “that” clause. which is howling.) 2. that is howling. is making me nervous. is making me nervous. The wind.

from http://owl. A.english. Relative Pronouns.purdue.References  Cain. OWL Materials. (2003).Eye on Editing 2: Developing Editing Skills for Writing. (Ed. Retrieved September 1. (2009).edu/owl/resource/645/01/ 23 . J. New York: Pearson Education  Brizee. 2009.). S.

about.htm A grammar website on relative clauses giving all the details of relative clauses and provide exercises. If you want to know relative clauses inside out.ego4u. visit: 24 .Web resources  On how to use a relative clause (also links on the page on defining/restrictive) and non-defining/nonrestrictive relative clauses) lause. 25 .com/videoplay?docid=486183297429660222#docid=-1240715167746622451 Distinguish the use of “who” and “whom” in a relative clause http://video.Videos on Relative Clauses  On defining relative clauses (with movie clips)

Used with Permission  Proofread and revised by Yang Ying 26 . Powerpoint developed by Irene Tan.