CBB 3024 PROCESS PLANT DESIGN

4 Credit-Hour Core Course Semester May 2011

Lecturer :
Lecture Time Location

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib Dr Mohanad El-Harbawi
: Mon 10 am – 12 noon ; Mon 1 – 3 pm : Thurs 11 am – 1 pm ; Fri 8 – 10 am : LT D2 ; 21-01-04 17-02-06 21-02-07

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES – UTP CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

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Acquire and apply knowledge of basic sciences and engineering fundamentals

Acquire and apply Chemical Engineering principles and in-depth technical knowledge
Ability to design, optimize and operate processes Undertake problem identification, formulation and solution by considering the concept of sustainable development Comprehend social, cultural, global and environmental responsibilities of a professional engineer, and the need for sustainable development Communicate effectively in a professional context Exhibit professional and ethical responsibilities Demonstrate leadership, business acumen and entrepreneurship Demonstrate the capability to undertake lifelong learning

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COURSE OUTCOMES – CHEMICAL PLANT DESIGN K 3 CO1 Integrate knowledge from previous chemical engineering courses in designing a chemical process system Apply conceptual process design and synthesis tools in designing a chemical process system Apply a systematic approach or method to design a chemical process system S A PO1 PO2 PO3 PO4 PO5 PO6 PO7 PO8 PO3 PO9 PO7 x x x x CO2 x x x x x CO3 x x x x x x K – Knowledge S – Skill A – Attitude .

Problem Table Algorithm) Heat Integration (Grand Composite Curve & Multiple Utilities) Heat Integration (HEN Design) Assign 1 Test 1 Assign 2 Test 1 Assign 2 Test 1 Assign 2 Test 1 Dr Ibrahim Dr Ibrahim Dr Ibrahim Dr Ibrahim . Delivery & Assessment Lec. 1-2 Topic Introduction to Plant Design and Economics (Approaches and Stages of Process Design) Quiz 1 3-4 5-8 General Plant Consideration (Plant Layout/Utility System) Synthesis of Reactor Separation System (Fundamentals and Selection of Reaction System & Separation System) Synthesis of Reactor Separation System (Fundamentals and Selection of Reaction System & Separation System) Assign 1 Test 1 Assign 1 Test 1 Dr Ibrahim Dr Ibrahim Assessment Lecturer Dr Ibrahim 9-12 Dr Ibrahim 13-16 17-20 21-24 25-28 Synthesis of Reactor Separation System (Process Recycle and Distillation Sequencing) Heat Integration (Composite Curve & Heat Recovery Pinch.Course Content. No.

3 (5%) Final Exam . Solution Strategies) Economics of Chemical Plants Equipment Design & Specification (Material Transfer & Handling.1 (10%) . Pairing of Variables in MIMOS. No.2 (20%) Assignments .1 (60%) Projects . Mass Transfer Equipment) Equipment Design & Specification (Mass Transfer & Reactor Equipment) Assessment Test 2 Quiz 2 Assign 3 Test 2 Assign 3 Test 2 Lecturer Dr Mohanad Dr Ibrahim Dr Mohanad Dr Mohanad 45-48 49-52 53-56 Equipment Design & Specification (Pressure Vessel Design) Environmental Studies & Consideration – Effluent Treatment. Waste Minimisation and Life Cycle Analysis Plant Wide Control (Material & Quality Control. Model Formulation. Typical Unit Operation and Control Strategies) Assign 3 Test 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Dr Mohanad Dr Mohanad Dr Ibrahim Assessment : Quizzes – 4 (5 %) Tests . 29-32 33-36 37-40 41-44 Topic Process Flowsheeting (Flowsheet Synthesis & Simulation.Lec.

Introduction to Plant Design and Economics The purpose of engineering is to create material wealth – Douglas. the overall transformation is broken down into a number of steps that provide intermediate transformations.Lecture 1. Instead. the transformation of raw materials into desired products usually cannot be achieved in a single step. How to do so ? Energy In Raw Materials + Other Feeds CHEMICAL PROCESS Products + Wastes Energy Out WHAT CAN YOU SAY ABOUT THE CHEMICAL PROCESS ? In a chemical process. Grossman & Westerberg. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes 1988. Chemical Process Design 1995) . (Robin Smith. Systematic Methods of Chemical Process Design 1997. The goal of the engineer is to design and produce artifacts and systems that are beneficial to mankind – Biegler.

HOW MUCH ENERGY IS REQUIRED AND HOW MUCH IS PRODUCED? .WHAT SORT OF PROCESSINGS ARE LOCATED IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS? .HOW DO WE SEQUENCE THE PROCESSING STEPS? . A NUMBER OF PROCESSING STEPS MADE UP THE CHEMICAL PROCESS.HOW MUCH FEEDS DO WE NEED AND HOW MUCH PRODUCTS ARE PRODUCED? . QUESTIONS? .HOW MUCH PROFIT COULD BE DERIVED? HOW DO WE ADDRESS THIS? Concept Design for Chemical Process .HOW MUCH WASTES ARE GENERATED? .Raw Materials + Other Feeds CHEMICAL PROCESS Products + Wastes Energy Energy SO.TO WHAT EXTEND CAN WE EXPECT EACH OF THE PROCESSING STEP TO PERFORM AND WHAT FEATURES ARE REQUIRED? .

. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes 1988) . only a very small fraction of the information needed to define a design problem is available from the problem statement. the major features that distinguishes design problems from other types of engineering problems is that they are under defined.e. i.Raw Materials + Other Feeds CHEMICAL PROCESS Products + Wastes Energy Energy PROCESS PLANT DESIGN IS THE NAME OF THE GAME HERE ! LITTLE OR LIMITED INFORMATIONS ARE AVAILABLE BEFORE COMING UP WITH A COMPLETE PROCESS But so many possibilities or solutions ! Perhaps. (Douglas.

Distillation .. the equipment design then has to be performed….Once the process concept has been designed which produces process flowsheet.

Performance/Capacity Rating or Sizing Equipments’ Dimensions – diameter & height No.The equipment design comprises of . of stages for contact Heat Transfer Area Needed 2. Vessel Mechanical Design Internal Design Wall thickness Support Design Pipe fittings & Reinforcement . 1.

1.The process safety and control strategy has to be devised. Process Control Strategy Material Control Product Control Risk Assessment Matrix Overall Plant and Equipment …. . Process Safety Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) Risk Assessment HAZOP study 2.

And Waste Treatment/Minimisation need to also be addressed… 1. Waste Minimisation (sustainability) . Waste Treatment (conventional) Suitable ‘end of pipe’ treatment on the effluent (gases & liquids) 2.Adjusting processes to minimise the generation of waste REACTOR SEPARATION & RECYCLE SYSTEM HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK UTILITIES .

In finalising the process and equipment design. Return on Investment Internal Rate of Return with profitability analysis conducted at the end to assess project viability …… . EP 1 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material Second Step (after mass balance developed) EP 2 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material . Pay back time.Utility Third Step (after equipments designed) EP 3 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material – Utility – Annualised Cost of Equipment The economics analysis continues with other costs (manpower. several stages of economic analysis could be conducted … First step. insurance etc) ….

..Finally ….

ADDRESS THE INDIVIDUAL PROCESS/TRANSFORMATION STEP RECYCLE STEAM FEED REACTOR PRODUCT 1 CW PRODUCT 2 2.Lecture 2. In general conceptual process design has to address two major activities …. ADDRESS THE REQUIRED INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN THE STEPS . Approaches and Stages of Process Plant Design In the first stage. 1. conceptual process design has to be conducted.

and the target is to create the best possible feasible flowsheet for the process.………. DEFINITION OF A FLOWSHEET. FLOWSHEET IS A DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE PROCESS STEPS AND ITS INTERCONNECTIONS. RECYCLE STEAM FEED REACTOR PRODUCT 1 CW Str1 F T P x H Str2 Str3 Str4 Str5 Str6 Str7 Str8 Str9 PRODUCT 2 WHAT OTHER INFORMATIONS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN A FLOWSHEET ? AND HOW DO YOU GET SUCH INFORMATION ? THIS IS WHAT YOU WANT AT THE END OF THE STAGE ! .

we recognize that process design actually is an art.. (Douglas. . we must also recognised that process design is an art ! If we reflect on the nature of process synthesis and analysis.e. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes 1988) . …. i. creative process. as much as we would like to have a systematic approach or method.A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH OR METHOD IS REQUIRED The approach or method should be able to help in addressing these questions … Why is the unit operation selected ? How are the unit operations connected ? What are the utilities required and approximate amount ? How will it be supplied to the process unit operations ? What wastes will be generated? However.

ADDRESS THE INDIVIDUAL PROCESS/TRANSFORMATION STEP RECYCLE STEAM FEED REACTOR PRODUCT 1 CW FLOWSHEET PRODUCT 2 2. what criteria should be adopted besides economics during the design activities? 1.QUANTIFIABLE FACTOR ! HIGH SAFETY & INTEGRITY GOOD OPERATIONAL ASPECTS MINIMISE WASTES GENERATION MINIMISE ENERGY CONSUMPTION .. BUT HOW TO OPTIMISE ? .... ADDRESS THE REQUIRED INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN THE STEPS QUANTIFIABLE FACTOR ! MINIMISE COST VERSUS NON .Now.

Consider back the flowsheet ! RECYCLE STEAM FEED REACTOR PRODUCT 1 CW PRODUCT 2 OPTIMISING A SINGLE UNIT/STEP IN THE PROCESS EG. DISTILLATION COLUMN TOTAL COST OPTIMISING THE INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE UNITS/STEPS IN THE PROCESS MANY POSSIBLE CONNECTIONS WHICH LEAD TO DIFFERENT STRUCTURES OF FLOWSHEET THUS DIFFERENT ECONOMIC IMPACT EVEN TO THE EXTENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL UNIT ITSELF! RR --> ENERGY RR RR --> CAPITAL CONTINUOUS FUNCTION DIS-CONTINUOUS FUNCTION ? PARAMETER OPTIMISATION STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION How do we tackle them ? .

RECYCLE STRUCTURE OF THE FLOWSHEET 4. INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF THE FLOWSHEET 3. SEPARATION AND RECYCLE SYSTEM 3. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF SEPARATION SYSTEM 5.. 1985 Biegler.Conceptual Design of Chemical Process 1988 . REACTOR 2.Chemical Process Design 1995 HIERARCHICAL APPROACH USE A SEQUENTIAL/HIERARCHICAL METHOD ACCORDING TO FOLLOWING SEQUENCE . Grossman & Westerberg. 9: 463. Comp. Eng. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK Grossman I. Chem. BATCH VS CONTINUOUS 2. 1. 1. SIMULTANEOUS SOLUTION OF ALL THE SYSTEM.. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK 4. DECISION ARE BASED ON SOLELY MATHEMATICAL OPTIMISATION CRITERIA CONCEPT IS BASED ON "CREATING AND OPTIMISING A REDUCIBLE STRUCTURE" Smith R..Consider the approaches/methods which have been introduced to deal with such complex optimisation ? HEURISTIC METHOD ONION MODEL USE A SEQUENTIAL/HIERARCHICAL METHOD ACCORDING TO FOLLOWING SEQUENCE . Systematic Method of Chemical Process Design 1997 Douglas. UTILITIES DECISION ARE BASED ON ENGINEERING GUIDELINES ESTABLISHED AND MATHEMATICAL OPTIMISATION CONCEPT IS BASED ON "BUILDING AN IRREDUCIBLE STRUCTURE" MATHEMATICAL METHOD MIXED INTEGER LINEAR/ NON-LINEAR PROGRAMMING USE A MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING METHOD TO SOLVE AND GIVE SOLUTION FOR THE PROCESS. E.

many best local optimal decisions are made since the whole picture is incomplete.FOLLOWS ONION LOGIC REACTOR SEPARATION & RECYCLE SYSTEM Design starts from the centre ( heart of process ) which is the reactor. decision has to be made to complete the design requirement for the stage. At each layer. As such. Unit/Equipment is added only if it is economically justified based on the current available information. This keeps the process (structure) irreducible and features which are technically/economically redundant are not included.HEURISTIC METHOD – The Onion Model . What do you see are the advantages and disadvantages of this method ? Advantages Disadvantages HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK UTILITIES .

Level 1 Decision : Batch vs Continuous Level 2 Decision : Fixing the Input-Output Structure Level 3 Decision : Determining the Recycle Structure for the Process Level 4 Decision : Determining the Separation System Level 5 Decision : Determining the Heat Exchanger Network WHAT DO YOU NOTICE ON THE STATEMENT CONTAIN WITHIN THE SHADED BOX ? REACTOR SEPARATION & RECYCLE SYSTEM HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK Compare these statements to the onion model ! At each level except level 1. The approach is somewhat different by tackling the 5 different level that are classified differently. UTILITIES . Some level of process design has to be conducted on the units/process placed at every stages. alternatives have to be generated and assessed to see its economic and operational potential. The 5 levels are .HEURISTIC METHOD – The Hierarchical Approach The conceptual design is performed based on 5 different stages.

MATHEMATICAL METHOD – The Mixed Integer Linear/Nonlinear Programming .CREATION OF SUPERSTRUCTURE/HYPERSTRUCTURE A major (super) structure is created which embedded within it all feasible process (including its operations) and all feasible interconnections that are candidates for an optimal design. the programming optimise and reduce the process (structure) to an optimal solution. Started off with many redundant features. The method is completely automated and depends only on the computer programming to solve it. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method ? Advantages Disadvantages other process alternatives Semester July 2004 . The design problem is formulated into sets of mathematical equations which has to be solved by the mathematical programming.

a flowsheet is generated for the process.From the conceptual process design. The next stage would then be to address the equipment design … RECYCLE STEAM FEED REACTOR PRODUCT 1 CW PRODUCT 2 Heat Exchanger Reactor Distillation Type of Exchanger (Plate / Shell & Tube) Heat Transfer Coefficient Heat Transfer Area Pressure Drop Exchanger Configuration Type of Reactor Reaction Kinetics Reaction Selectivity Reactor Sizing Reactor Temperature & Pressure No of stages Reflux Ratio Feed Location Vapour/Liquid Loading Column Sizing Internals Column Temperature & Pressure .

. Gilliland & Underwood No of stages calculation versus reflux ratio could be made and the feed location determined. Heat Exchanger Reactor Distillation Kern’s method Rating calculation that will enable the sizing of the heat exchanger to be done Reactor From the kinetics obtained from experiment. sizing of reactor could be done based on residence time.There are established methods for performing the design of these equipments …. Results are then simulated in rigorous simulation model for actual design involving capacity calculation for internals. Fenske.

and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. It is reviewed every three years. the design of the pressure vessel has to be conducted.. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) is a standard that provides rules for the design. . The design is to be done according to standards…. fabrication. Heat Exchanger Reactor Distillation Pressure Vessel Dimension Shell Thickness Flanges Connection & Reinforcement Support type and Design Corrosion Allowance Welding specification American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.Given that each of the equipment will normally involved vessel operated at various pressure and temperature.

FIRE Auto Ignition temp. . Inherent Safety Hazard Analysis Remove or attenuate conditions that could lead to the 3 incidents such as high P and T …..Health. Therefore the design of process plant has to take into account of the HSE particularly the safety and environment aspects where it has to be integrated with the design activities …. Safety and Environment aspects are increasingly gaining attention in view of their importance. Flammability Limits Flash Points Minimum Oxygen concentration Flammable liquids are more dangerous than flammable gas EXPLOSION Chemical Energy vs Physical Energy Deflagration vs detonation Confined vs Unconfined Explosions (VCE) TOXIC RELEASE Time weighed exposure Short term Exposure Ceiling Exposure LC50 & LD50 DOW Index HAZOP Hazard and Operability Study.

Adsorption. Inertial Collectors.Health. Therefore the design of process plant has to take into account of the HSE particularly the safety and environment aspects where it has to be integrated with the design activities …. Electrostatic precipitators. Scribbers. CO. Nox Gravity Settlers. membrane separation etc. . thermal oxidation. SOx. Safety and Environment aspects are increasingly gaining attention in view of their importance. Environment Environment Waste Minimisation (Clean Process Technology) Reactor Increase conversion if selectivity is not an issue Product removal for reversible reaction favoring product Set T & P to improve selectivity Distillation Recycling waste stream to suppress by product reaction Feed purification Eliminate use of extraneous material for separation (entrainer) Waste stream recovery Improve heat recovery Waste Treatment Air Effluent Particulate. Absorption. biological treatment. Filters. CO2. Water Effluent Membrane. catalytic reaction etc.

.Finally ….. You will develop the construction details for a process plant ….

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