# TIME STUDY

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Qualified worker:
A qualified worker is a person who has the right knowledge or right skill of doing the specific task, the right effort, high motivation and other attributes to accomplish a job up to satisfactory level of quality, quantity and safety.

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Definition of Time Study
Time study is a technique for determining as accurately as possible, the time required on an average to carry out a specific task by a qualified worker. at a defined level of performance.

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Objective of Time Study
1. Determines the standard time which should be required to do a specific job by all workers. 2. Decides manpower required for the job, it helps in manpower economy. 3. Decides machines/equipments requirement. 4. Provide information for effective production planning.
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5. Aids in calculating exact delivery dates. 6. Decides realistic labor wage/budgeting and provides a basis for standard costing system. 7. Provides a basis for fair and sound incentive schemes.

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Operation cycle:
Most of the works conducted on a mass scale have a repetitive nature. For example, a worker in an apparel factory performs her job again and again, she takes a bundle of cut parts, open the bundle, takes a part from it, position it to the machine, completes sewing, ties up the bundle, keep it aside and takes another bundle. This process continues all alone. The series of movements from taking a part from bundle, putting under the needle, sewing the part and disposing the part to the bundle of sewn part is called operation cycle.

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Observed time:
An operator in an apparel industry performs one or more operations. The time she requires to complete the operation as determined by a work study officer by observing her time with aid of a stop watch is called observed time.

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Calculation of an observed time of an operation of an operator:
Apparel comprises a large number of operations, in order to determine the standard time of an operation, it is necessary to record observed time of the operation. Standard time is made of basic time and allowance time. Basic time is the observed time multiplied by operator rating. So it is the job of a work study officer to record time of each operation allotted to an operator and to asses her rating.

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Types of operations in terms of length:
Operations vary in respect of length, difficulty and quality etc. They may be large (15 seconds or more), medium (715 seconds), or small if below 7 seconds.

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Attaching pocket of a shirt or hemming bottom of a shirt is relatively large process. They can be divided in to element movements. Time of these element movements can be measured.

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Attaching labels on two edges is relatively medium processes (more than 7 seconds). The whole process as a whole can be measured but its elements are too fast to measure.

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There are some other small operations, such as bar tacking on one position, as a single cycle cannot be measured but a number of cycles say 15-20 cycles may be measured. These are very important features of a process which are taken account at the time of recording.

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Time measurement for larger processes
Relatively large processes are those which take more than 15 seconds. Their elements’ movements are clear and can be measured. Collar top stitching is such an example. Collar is lifted, sewing is completed and then it is placed in the bundle. The process continues. In this case all movements should be recorded individually.

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Subdivision of work - Therbligs
Name Search Grasp Transport Position Assemble or sewing Code SH G TL P A Color Black Red Green Blue Violet

Disassemble Inspect
Release Rest Unavoidable Delay

DA I
RL R UD

Light Violet Burnt Brown
Carmine Red Orange Yellow

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Operator

Process

Element movement Cycle Lift/grasp start

Start time

Record completion time for each cycle given below 1 0 2 20 7 27 10 37 3 40 8 48 10 58 4 61 7 68 10 78

Lift time Collar top stitch Sew start Sew time Place start Placing time

7 7 10 17

Rahim

3

3

3

3

Place end
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81
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Time measurement for medium processes
Medium processes are those which take time between 7 to 15 seconds each. These operations as a whole are clear but their element movements cannot be measured accurately. Time is measured by stop watch. An example is collar band bottom cutting by an overlock machine. A time recording format for such processes is given below:

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SL

operator process

Start time 1

Record of time for each cycle

2 25

3 38

4 51

5 64

1

Moyna

Collar bottom cutting

0

12

Cycle time 2 Nazmun Collar bottom cutting 0

12

13

13

13

13

12

26

38

51

71

Cycle time

12

14

12

13

20

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Time measurement for small process:
Small processes are those which generally take time less than 7 seconds. These processes go so fast that even individual operations cannot be measured. So a definite lot of operations are allowed to pass when measurements are taken. Attaching loops to trousers or bar tacking are examples. A bundle has 10 trousers and each trouser has 5 loops. Time is measures for the whole bundle and stop watch records 310 seconds. Thus each loop takes 310/50 = 6.20 seconds. Observed time for a trouser = 6.2 x 5 = 31 seconds.
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SL

Operator

Process

Start time

Finish time

Time for Pieces in whole a lot / lot bundle

Observed time

1

Rohima

Stay sewing

0

100’’

100’’

20

5’’

2

Nazmun

Collar fitting

0

60’’

60’’

20

3’’

3

Moyna

Collar sewing

0

120’’

120’’

20

6’’

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Performance Rating
Different workers perform their jobs with different efficiencies. Some workers are cleaver; they learn their jobs quickly and attain a very high efficiency. Some other may be mediocre and many others may be lenient to learn or may be dull. Thus workers widely vary in their performance.

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Rating is the speed of an operator doing a job

relative to observer’s idea of standard speed of work. Rating is thus a comparison of the rate of
work observed by a work study executive with the idea of some standard level of working in his mind.

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The standard rate

is the average rate with which the qualified workers are assumed to be able to work provided they are motivated to do the job and if the right method of work is applied. Such rate of work is called standard rating. This is called standard rating, because it is assumed that majority of the qualified workers will be able to achieve such speed of working. If appropriate allowances are provided, a worker can retain standard performance over the whole working hours.

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Scale of rating:
There are several scales in use. We normally use British Standard Scale 100 BSI which is also known as . The advantage of this scale is that ‘0’ designates no activity while ‘100’ which represents standard rating which is normal for an average qualified worker.

0-100 scale

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Rating 0 50 75

100

125

150

Description No activity or movement Very slow clumsy movement Speedy, purposeful but unhurried movement Speedy, business like movement of qualified motivated worker Very speedy movement, operator shows higher degree of effort, dexterity and coordination higher than that of an average qualified worker. Exceptionally fast movement which cannot be retained for the whole of working time.

Comparable speed

2 miles/hr 3 miles/hr

3.2 km/hr 4.8 km/hr

4 miles/hr

6.4 km/hr

5 miles/hr

8 km/hr

6 miles/hr

9.6 km/hr

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How work study officer uses a rating:
Rating of an operator is usually a very difficult task. It requires long experience in the floor, patience, intelligence etc. If the work study executive things that the operation is being performed at a rate less than the standard, a factor less than 100 say, 75 is used. If he considers that the rate of doing is above standard he will use a factor greater than 100, say 110 or 115 or 120 etc. Ratings

are used normally as an

increment of 5. For example, a rate of 77 is not normally
used. It is generally rounded 80.

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Westinghouse Method of Rating
Westinghouse system utilizes a set of criteria to measure the performance of the operators. The factors are:

• Skill – Measures the worker’s proficiency in performing the
operation.

• Effort – Measures the speed with which the skill is applied.

• Consistency

– Measures the factors which affect the consistency of the operator to perform the work cycle repeatedly. like temperature, vibrations, light and noise affect performance.

• Conditions – Measures the extent to which the conditions

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Performance Rating Table (Westinghouse Method)

Skill
+ 0.15 + 0.13 + 0.11 + 0.08 + 0.06 + 0.03 0.00 - 0.05 A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D E1 Good Average Fair Poor Excellent Super skill + 0.13 + 0.12 + 0.10 + 0.08 + 0.05 + 0.02 0.00 - 0.04

Effort
A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D E1 Good Average Fair Poor Excellent Excessive

- 0.10
- 0.16 - 0.22 + 0.06 + 0.04 + 0.02 0.00 - 0.03

E2
F1 F2 Conditions A B C D E

- 0.08
- 0.12 - 0.17 + 0.04 + 0.03 + 0.01 0.00 - 0.02

E2
F1 F2 Consistency A B C D E

Ideal Excellent Good Average Fair

Perfect Excellent Good Average Fair

0.07 Monday, April-15, 2013

F

Poor

- 0.04

F

Poor

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Example: An observed time for an operation is 0.05 minutes and the factors are as follows:
Skill is excellent Effort is good Condition is good Consistency is good

What is the performance rating for the operator?

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Solution:
The values for the ratings are as follows:
Criteria Skill Effort Condition Consistency Rating B2 C2 C2 C Total Value + 0.08 + 0.02 + 0.02 + 0.01 + 0.13

a) Performance rating factor = 1 + 0.13 = 1.13 = 113%

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Basic Time
Basic time is the time required by a qualified operator to complete a job had she worked at standard speed (at 100% rating) all the time without any allowance. Basic time is obtained by multiplying observed time with rating of the worker. Thus Basic time = observed time x rating of the operator.
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Example: An operator attaches top center of the left front. Her observed time shows 28 seconds. Work study executive considers her of 80% rating. Calculate basic time of the operation. Ans: observed time 28 seconds and rating of the operator 80%. So her basic time = observed time x her rating = 28 x 80% = 28 x 0.80 = 22.4 seconds.

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Basic time is operation depended not operator dependent:
Operator Observed time(seconds)
16

Operator rating

Basic time (seconds)
16 x 75% = 12

Julie

75%

Jesmin

12

100%

12 x 100% = 12

Kariman

10

120%

10 x 120% = 12

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Thus whatever may be the ratings of different operators, for the same job the basic time will be the same. In this way, standard time of any operation is also constant irrespective of different rating of operators for the same operation and if allowance time for the whole floor is same, say 20%.

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• Example 1: an operator was found to have 900 seconds to complete 300 pieces of her work as observed by a work study officer. Calculate the observed time. Ans: her observed time = 900 seconds / 300 = 3 seconds. • Example 2: the same operator found to have a rating of 90%. Calculate her basic time. Ans: basic time =observed time x rating = 3 x 90% =3 x 0.90 = 2.7 seconds.

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Allowance Time
A worker cannot and does not work continuously throughout her full working hours. She has to go to lavatory, take out bobbin case, replace a blunt needle, talk to the supervisor or line inspector, a small break to recover from fatigue etc. She cannot avoid all these things, because they are beyond her control. She needs some time for her own personal needs. This is why workers are entitled to some type of extra time for these types of circumstances. This type of non performing time is called allowance. The allowance time ranges from 1525%. Allowance time is taken into account during setting up of standard time.

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There are different types of allowances:
Relaxation allowances: it is the time allowed to
an operator to attend to personal needs and to recover from fatigue. Fatigue is a mental or physical exhaustion developed in a worker due to continuous work. It is assumed that a small rest or pause in work lessens fatigue and as a result the person is reenergized.

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• Fixed relaxation allowance:

Fixed allowance comprises time allowed for personal needs and for basic fatigue. Time allowed for personal needs is around 5-7%. Example drinking water, smoking, going to wash room etc. allowance is added to take in to account a poor working condition leading to higher stress and fatigue.

• Variable relaxation allowance: Variable

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There are some factories which encounter frequent minor interruptions. They cover them by a

contingency allowance.

Machine delay allowance:

this is the time allowed for delay due to machine maintenance.

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Allowance time varies with the complexity of the machine. Some typical machine delay allowances are shown below for references:
Type of machine
1 needle lockstitches 2 needle lockstitches 1 needle 3 thread over lock 2 needle 4 thread over lock 2 needle 5 thread over lock
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Allowance rate in %
9% 14% 7% 9% 11%
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Process allowance: A process allowance is an allowance of time given to compensate for enforced idleness of an operator due to the character of the process or operation on which he or she is employed. For example, an operator may be the member of an unbalanced line. These are all unavoidable delay for which the operator is not responsible.

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• Style change allowance:

allowance time is permitted where frequent style changes occur. some times special time is given as start time allowance, shut down allowance etc because time is wasted at start time or change of work shift. Times are covered by special allowance. Allowance is calculated on basic time.

• Special allowance:

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A job comprises following elements. The work is done with a single needle lockstitch machine equipped with auto thread trimmer. There are 50 pieces in the bundle. Calculate allowance time using following information:

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Description Grip the part and place on the table Sew Turn Top stitch

Basic time (sec) 20

Machine used Manual

Occurrence rate 1

Allowance rate 12%

29 15 25

1 needle lock stitch Manual 1 needle lock stitch

1 1 1

9% 12% 9%

Tie up bundle
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50/50

Manual

1

12%
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• Here machine delay allowance time comprises SL. 1 &2 and personal need and fatigue allowance comprise SL. 1,3 and 5. • Thus machine delay allowance = (29+25) x 9% =54 x 0.09 =4.86 sec. • Thus personal needs and fatigue allowance = (20+15+50/50) x 12% = 5.04 sec. • Total allowance time = 4.86 +5.04 sec = 9.90 sec However most of the factories accept an average rate of allowance to apply to basic time.
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STANDARD TIME
Standard time of an operation is the time which a qualified operator should take to accomplish it if she works at standard performance/speed (at the rating of 100) and provided that she takes extra time allowed to her as an allowance.

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If standard time is counted in seconds it is called standard second but if it is calculated in minutes standard time is referred to as standard minute or standard minute value (SMV). Standard time of an operation is also a constant value though different operators take different observed time due to their different speed or efficiencies and if the allowance rate is fixed throughout the factory.

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Operator

Observed time(seconds)

Operator rating

Basic time (seconds)

Allowance 15% (seconds)

Standard time

Julie Jesmin Kariman

16 12 10

75% 100% 120%

16 x 75% = 12 12 x 100% = 12 10 x 120% = 12

1.8 1.8 1.8

13.8 13.8 13.8

The table shows that three operators are observed to have taken different time to complete the same job to their different speed. But the basic and standard time for the operation are constant.

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Example: The recorded time for a trouser’s hem for 10 observations is given below:
Observation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time 0.42 0.425 0.408 0.412 0.415 0.418 0.414 0.411 0.419 0.410

If the performance rating is 85% and the allowance rate is 25%, then what would be the standard time for trouser’s hem?
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Solution:
Observed time = Average time for the mean observation = 4.145 / 10 = 0.4145 minute Basic Time = Observed Time × Performance Rating = 0.4145 × 0.85 = 0.35224 minute Standard Time = Basic Time + Allowances = 0.35224 + (0.35224 × 0.25) = 0.44 minute Thus standard time for trouser’s hem is 0.44 minute.

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