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Biodiesel Production

Austin Pett Robert York

S. energy consumption Projected to reach 39.7 quadrillion Btu in 2030 1 .8 quadrillion Btu in 2004 This accounted for over 25% of the entire U.Transportation Energy Demand    Total delivered energy consumption for transportation was 27.

The Alternative 2  Biodiesel is a cleaner burning replacement fuel made from renewable sources like new and used vegetable oils and animal fats  Low-level blends (≤20% biodiesel) can be used in almost any existing diesel engine  High-level blends (>20% can be used in most new diesel engines .

Biodiesel Background  Four main production methods   Transesterification     Direct use and blending Micro emulsions Thermal cracking Transesterification   Most common production method Uses vegetable oils and animal fats as feed stocks The reaction of a fat or oil with an alcohol to form esters (biodiesel) and glycerol .

Technological Challenges  Expensive feed stocks and inefficient production methods  Strict standards for product quality  NOx emissions  Transportation and storage concerns 3 .

agitation.Storage  Biodiesel should be stored 5-10 degrees F above cloud point. heating systems. or other measure. Above ground fuel systems should be protected with insulation. Test Method Cloud Point ASTM D2 500 oF oC  Pour Point ASTM D97 Cold Filter Plug Point IP 309 B100 Fuel Soy Methyl Ester Canola Methyl Ester Lard Methyl Ester Edible Tallow Methyl Ester Inedible Tallow Methyl Ester Yellow Grease 1 Methyl Ester oF oC oF oC 38 26 56 66 61 -- 3 -3 13 19 16 -- 25 25 55 60 59 48 -4 -4 13 16 15 9 28 24 52 58 50 52 -2 -4 11 14 10 11 Yellow Grease 2 Methyl Ester 46 8 43 6 34 1 5 .

kerosene or other low cloud point fuel . In cold weather can be shipped in several ways      Hot for immediate delivery (80-130 F) Hot (120-130 F) in railcars for delivery within 7-8 days Frozen in railcars equipped with steam coils Blended with winter diesel.Transportation   Should not be contaminated Trucks or railcars should be washed from previous load to prevent mixing with leftover residuals or water.

Biodiesel Economics    60-70% of the cost to process biodiesel is from feed stock costs Yellow Grease has a limited supply Soybean and other plant oils have long term price issues 4 .

Biodiesel Economics  There is ample room for improvement in the efficiency of processing biodiesel  6 Development of a continuous transesterification process Recovery of high quality glycerol  .

Government Policy  Energy Policy Act (Energy Conservation Reauthorization Act of 1998)  Reduce nations dependency on foreign oil Requires certain fleets to acquire AFVs Credits rewarded for acquisition of AFVs and biodiesel    Biodiesel Tax Incentive  Several grant programs  Tax credits for blending biodiesel Investment opportunities in certain refueling infrastructure  .

The Future of Biodiesel  Should be considered for use as an alternative and not a primary fuel Short and long term environmental benefits will be worthwhile Storage Issues with Stability and Transportation issues with high cost of delivered fuel compared to fossil fuels Fuel-supply reliability Lack of understanding of environmental impact .NOx emissions Complexity of biomass-power infrastructure compared to known well established coal and natural gas markets      .

nrel.pdf http://www.nrel.pilot-plant.gov/oiaf/aeo/demand.pdf 4) 5) 6) http://www.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biodi esel/pdf/tbl3.org/ http://www.html 2) 3) http://www.doe.gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/ 40555.eia.eia.pdf http://www.doe.biodieselcommunity.jpg .gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/ 40555.Sources 1) http://www.com/images/reactivedistillation-heterogeneous.

Questions? .