You are on page 1of 48

Poetry and Verse

Chapter 4

Defining Poetry
Poetry is a poet’s intuition of truth Deals with the essence of life “the opposite of hypocrisy” (Corso)

 “Poetry has a beat that repeats, words that
chime, and images we have not imagined before.”

 “Poetry is rainbow writing”
Eve Merriam

Values of Poetry
1. share feelings, experiences, and visions 2. discover the power of words 3. expand vocabulary 4. look at details of the world in new way 5. can find a poem to match every mood 6. succinct - less intimidating than books

94 Language is innovative and surprising Astonishes readers with careful word choices and original comparisons Sounds are combined in ways that make words sing Rhyme. and other sound elements are used purposefully to convey meaning Form helps the reader understand more about the subject or mood Subjects speaks to reader and are highly engaging . repetition. rhythm.Criteria for Evaluating Poetry p.

Children’s Poetry Preferences .

familiar experiences .Characteristics of Poems children Prefer Grades 1 – 3 (Primary) narrative. narrative. poems related to their experiences Grades 7 – 9 humorous narratives. rhyming Grades 4 – 6 (Upper Elementary) humorous. rhyme. limericks. about strange and fantastic events. onomatopoeia. rhythmic. alliteration. contemporary. limericks.

Research Findings page 97 Like Narratives and limericks popular with all ages Prefer rhyme. and sound Prefer contemporary poems Poems they can understand Poems that relate to personal experience Dislike Free verse and haiku most disliked Dislike imagery or figurative language Highly abstract poems Haiku poems consistently disliked . rhythm.

blank verse.Research Findings (McClure. 1985) Classroom experiences change children’s responses to poetry Children like serious poetry. and extended imagery Possible reasons for difference between this and other research findings: poetry was on required classroom list books included visual aspects of poetry teaching methods emphasize both study and structure of poetry responses .

Poets Use Language in Interesting Ways .

The bright words and the dark words are gone until dawn and a new day to write on.Figurative Language Similes Metaphors Serve as models and expand methods of expression Personification Metaphor By Eve Merriam Morning is a new sheet of paper for you to write on. until night folds it up and files it away. . all day. Whatever you want to say.

and Repetition Rhythm the movement of words in the poem.Rhythm. Rhyme. number and pattern of syllables. pronounced beats . the stress.

Uses of Rhythm Highlight or emphasize specific words Enjoyment (initiate joining in orally) Dramatic effect Establish mood Reinforce content .

Rhyme and Other Sound Patterns Can be at the end of a line or within a line Consonance: repetition of consonant sounds Assonance: repetition of vowel sounds .

Repetition Enriches or emphasizes words or phrases .

The turnips were tiny. He ate at least three.Alliteration: repetition of initial consonants The Meal Timothy Tompkins had turnips and tea. for dessert. And the. a pickle.” said Timothy.” He folded his napkin And hastened to add.” …. “Delicious.Karla Kuskin . He had two cups of ketchup. “Well worth a nickel. He had onions and ice. A prune. “It’s one of the loveliest breakfasts I’ve had. He liked that so much That he ordered it twice.

All around her galoshes? …Rhoda Bacmeister .Onomatopoeia: words sound like what they mean Galoshes Susie’s galoshes Make splishes and splashes And slooshes and sloshes. As Susie steps slowly Along in the slush. And splishes and sploshes. But Susie likes much best to hear The slippery slush As it slooshes and sloshes. They stamp and they tramp On the ice and concrete. They get stuck in the muck and the mud.

hear.Imagery Use of sensory images of sight. feel. smell and taste words which help us see. touch. taste. sound. smell and touch .

Shape Shape and space increases impact of words word division line division punctuation capitalization stanzas white space arrangement of poem .

Poetry Comes in a Variety of Forms .

Narrative Poems Tell Stories Rapid action and typically chronological order .

Ballad narrative folk songs usually focus is heroism or tragedy dramatic and fast-paced incidents and dialogue .

Lyric Poems musical. descriptive. sing a song usually brief. and focus on personal moment emphasize sound and picture imagery rather than narrative or drama .

witty.Limerick short. and 5 rhyme with 3 beats Lines 3 and 4 rhyme with 2 beats . 2. poem Lines 1.

Concrete shape and content match .

Spring : A Haiku Story by G. Zeldis . Shannon & M.Haiku lines 1 and 3 = 5 syllables lines 2 = 7 syllables A tanka is a poetic form in which two – seven-syllable lines are added to a haiku.

Free Verse Generally unrhymed .

cinquain and haiku not recommended for beginning poet .Cinquain line 1 = 1 noun line 2 = 2 words describing the title line 3 = 3 action words related to title line 4 = 4 words about feelings about title line 5 = 1 word related to title Because of complexity.

Using Poetry in the Classroom 1. Anthologies discourage enjoyment. Share poetry frequently. Use in context. 2. Over 75% of middle school teachers said they read poetry to children less than once a month. . not isolation. Share at appropriate times and in total curriculum. not just literature. Adults rarely share poetry with children.

4. Provide many and frequent experiences with poetry.3. 5. Understanding poetry is a continual process that builds on experience. Allow interaction and time for the poem to be internalized. Don’t “worksheet” it to death Sometimes what is left unsaid is more important than what is said. . 6. Read aloud. Memorizing poems does not enhance their enjoyment. 7. Discuss it. Don’t introduce by having children read silently.

Does it play with the sounds of language? 4.Criteria for Selecting Poetry 1. Is the subject matter appealing. Does it stir emotion (delight. sadness)? 3. Will it accompany you through life? . Can children understand it? With adult help? 2. Does it allow the the reader to be interactive with poem? 6. Is it age appropriate? 5. Will it be able to stand up under repeated readings? 8. appropriate? 7.

themes included and indexed -Can be found in general indexes Single Volumes .May be utilized more by individual students .Anthologies vs.More costly to build a collection of individual titles . Single Volumes Anthologies -Textbooks and anthologizers often include well-known poems that are public domain -May offer more use because of multiple topics.

Types of Poetry .

Nursery Rhymes .

and listening skills repetition .exaggeration good and bad characters .alliteration (consonant sounds) hyperbole . auditory.like a song without notes develop language.Appeal of Mother Goose Rhythm .

Types of Mother Goose Books Individual titles collections .

Nonsense and Humorous Lewis Carroll Shel Silverstein Jack Prelutsky William Jay Smith John Ciardi N. M. Bodecker Lear Laura Richards .

Nature Poems Robert Frost Aileen Fisher Byrd Baylor Paul Fleischman .

and Locations Myra Cohn Livingston Valerie Worth David McCord .Characters. Situations.

Moods and Feelings Langston Hughes Cynthia Rylant .

Sports Growing Up .

Judy Pedersen fifty-one poems and sleep charms in a large-format picture book .On the Road of Stars : Native American Night Poems and Sleep Charms by John Bierhorst.

Animals .

Witches and Ghosts .

Methods of Sharing Poetry Listen to poetry Move to poetry Dramatize poetry Choral speaking Write poetry Share poetry read aloud. accordion.pleated book . post it.

Read a poem every day Choose a poet of the week month Use poems across the curriculum Use poems around a theme .“Choose Your Own Poetry Award Winner”.

Good Resource Books Dunning & Stafford (1992). (1991). McCord. One Day at a Time: Collected Poems for the Young Larick. Getting the Knack: 20 Poetry Writing Exercises. Let’s Do a Poem . N.

Web Sites of Note http://www. 118 of text) http://www.htm .poetryzone.surfnetkids.htm [try the virtual poetry] http://www.poets.uk/in dex2.co.org/ (see p.ndirect.com/games/pu bpoem-ws.