# Outline

Spring Functions & Types
Helical Springs
Compression
Extension
Torsional

The Function(s) of Springs
Most fundamentally: to STORE ENERGY
Many springs can also: push
pull
twist
Some Review
F
y
k
linear springs: k=F/y
nonlinear springs:
dy
dF
k =
Parallel
k
total
=k
1
+k
2
+k
3

Series
3 2 1
1 1 1 1
k k k k
total
+ + =
Types of Springs
Helical:
Compression
Extension
Torsion
More Springs
Washer Springs:
Beams:
Power springs:

Helical Compression Springs
d diameter of wire
D mean coil diameter
L
f
free length
p pitch
N
t
Total coils
may also need:
D
o
and D
i

Length Terminology
Free Length
Assembled
Length
Max Working
Bottomed
Out
minimum of 10-15%
clash allowance
L
f
L
a

L
m

L
s

End Conditions
Plain
Square
Plain Ground
Square Ground
N
a
=
Active Coils
F
F
F
F
Stresses in Helical Springs
Spring Index C=D/d
C
C
K where
d
FD
K
s s
2
1 2
,
8
3
max
+
= =
t
t
F
F
T
T
Curvature Stress
concentration, so use K
s

y
:
use K
s
for mean, K
w
for alternating

Inner part of spring is a stress concentration
(see Chapter 4)
K
w
includes both the direct shear factor and
the stress concentration factor
C C
C
K where
d
FD
K
w w
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
,
8
3
max
+
÷
÷
= =
t
t
Spring Deflection
G d
N FD
y
a
4
3
8
~
Spring Rate
G d
N FD
y
a
4
3
8
~
a
N D
G d
k
3
4
8
~
k=F/y
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
Static Spring Design
Inherently iterative
Some values must be set to calculate
stresses, deflections, etc.
Truly Design
there is not one “correct” answer
must synthesize (a little bit) in addition to
analyze
Material Properties
S
ut
ultimate tensile strength
Figure 13-3
Table 13-4 with S
ut
b

S
ys
torsional yield strength
Table 13-6 – a function of S
ut
and set
Spring/Material Treatments
 Setting
overstress material in same direction as applied
» increase static load capacity 45-65%
» increase energy storage by 100%
use K
s
, not K
w
(stress concentration relieved)
 Shot Peening
What type of failure would this be most effective
against?
What are You Designing?
Given

F, y
k, y
Find

k
F
Such that:
Safety factor is > 1
Spring will not buckle
Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space
d, C, D
*
, L
f
*
, N
a
*
, clash
allowance (o)
**
, material
**
design variables
+
* - often can calculate from given
** - often given/defined
Static Spring Flow Chart
STRESSES
N
s
=S
ys
/t
for shut spring if possible
if not, for max working load
if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F
D, K
s
, K
w

material strengths
DEFLECTION
L
f
, y
shut
, F
shut

Three things to know:
• effect of d
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check buckling
ITERATE?
d, C
material
N
a
, o
CHECK
buckling, N
shut
, D
i
, D
o

N
shut
=S
ys
/t
shut

Static Design: Wire Diameter
Three things to know:
• effect of d
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check buckling
3
max
8
d
FD
K
s
t
t =
G d
N FD
y
a
4
3
8
~
**see Example 13-3A on MathCad CD
*maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b
use Table 13-2 to select standard d near
calculated d
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
) 2 ( 1
1 5 . 0 8
b
m
initial work s
A K
F F C N
d
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷ + +
=
t
o o
Based on N
s
=S
sy
/t and above equation for t:
K
m
=S
ys
/S
ut

Buckling
f
working init
f
L
y y
y
D
L
R S
+
=
'
= . .
Three things to know:
• effect of d
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check buckling
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
Material Properties
 S
us
ultimate shear strength
S
us
~0.67 S
ut

 S
fw´
torsional fatigue strength
Table 13-7 -- function of S
ut
, # of cycles
repeated, room temp, 50% reliability, no corrosion
 S
ew´
torsional endurance limit
for steel, d < 10mm
see page 816 (=45 ksi if unpeened, =67.5 ksi if
peened)
repeated, room temp., 50% reliability, no corrosion

Modified Goodman for Springs
 S
fw
, S
ew
are for torsional strengths, so von
Mises not used
0.5 S
fw

0.5 S
fw

t
a

t
m

S
fs

C
B
S
us

A
( )
fw us
us fw
fs
S S
S S
S
5 . 0
5 . 0
÷
=
Fatigue Safety Factor
0.5 S
fw

0.5 S
fw

t
a

t
m

S
fs

S
us

S
a

t
a

t
i

t
m

m

m
good

a
a
fs
S
N
t
=
t
= t
a,good
at intersection
( )
( )
a us i m fs
i us fs
fs
S S
S S
N
t t t
t
+ ÷
÷
=
…on page 828
F
i
=F
min

F
a
=(F
max
-F
min
)/2
F
m
=(F
max
+F
min
)/2
What are you Designing?
Given

F
max
,F
min
, Ay
k, A y
Find

k
F
Such that:
Fatigue Safety Factor is > 1
Shut Static Safety Factor is > 1
Spring will not buckle
Spring is well below natural frequency
Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space
d, C, D
*
, L
f
*
, N
a
*
, clash
allowance (o)
**
, material
**
design variables
+
* - often can calculate from Given
** - often given/defined
Fatigue Spring Design Strategy
d, C
if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F
N
shut
=S
ys
/t
shut

CHECK
buckling, frequency,
N
shut
, D
i
, D
o

D, K
s
, K
w

material strengths
DEFLECTION
L
f
, y
shut
, F
shut

Two things to know:
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency
ITERATE?
material
N
a
, o
STRESSES
( )
( )
a us i m fs
i us fs
fs
S S
S S
N
t t t
t
+ ÷
÷
=
Fatigue Design:Wire Diameter
as before, you can iterate to find d, or you can use an equation
derived from relationships that we already know:
) 2 ( 1
min
1 34 . 1
1
67 . 0
8
b
a w
fw
b
s
fs
fs
m s
fs
F K
S
F K
N
N
F K
A
CN
d
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
÷
÷ =
t
use Table 13-2 to select standard d near
calculated d
Two things to know:
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency
**see Example 13-4A on MathCad CD
*maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b
Natural Frequency: Surge
Two things to know:
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency
Surge == longitudinal resonance
for fixed/fixed end conditions:
a
n
W
kg
f
2
1
=
(Hz)
…see pages 814-815 for more
ideally, f
n
will be at least 13x more than f
forcing

it should definitely be multiple times bigger
Review of Design Strategy
Select C, d
Find stresses
Determine material properties
Find safety factor
Solve for d, pick standard d
Find stresses
Determine material properties
Check safety factor
Select C, safety factor
ITERATIVE USING d EQUATION
Strategy Review Continued
Find spring constant, N
a
, N
t

Find F
SHUT
(must find lengths and y’s to do this)
Find static shut shear stress and safety factor
Check Buckling
Check Surge
Check D
i
, D
o
if pin to fit over, hole to fit in
Consider the Following:
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
Extension Springs
As before, 4 < C < 12
However, no peening, no setting,
a w s
for K use
d
FD
K t
t
t ,
8
3
max
=
surge check is same as before
L
b
=d(N
a
+1)
Difference 1: Initial Force
deflection y
force F
F
i

F=F
i
+ky
a
i
N D
G d
y
F F
k
3
4
8
=
÷
=
Difference 1a: Deflection
G d
N D F F
y
a i
4
3
) ( 8 ÷
~
Difference 2: Initial Stress
take initial stress as the average stress between these lines,
then find F
i

Difference 3: Ends!: Bending
2 3
4 16
d
F
d
DF
K
b a
t t
o + =
C
d
D
d
R
C
C C
C C
K
b
= = =
÷
÷ ÷
=
2
2 2
) 1 ( 4
1 4
1
1
1 1
1
2
1
67 . 0
) (
) (
min
min
es
e
alt ut mean e
ut e
fb
S
S
S S
S S
N
=
+ ÷
÷
=
o o o
o
standard
end
Difference 3a: Ends: Torsion
4 4
1 4
,
8
2
2
3
max
2 2
÷
÷
= =
C
C
K
d
FD
K
w w
t
t
C
2
=2R
2
/d
pick a value >4
Materials
S
ut
– Same
S
ys
, S
fw
, S
ew
– same for body
S
ys
, S
fw
, S
ew
– see Tables 13-10 and 13-
11 for ends

Strategy
similar to compression + end stresses - buckling
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
Torsion Springs
• close-wound, always load to close
Deflection & Spring Rate
E d
MDN
DN wire of length L
EI
ML
a
roundwire rev
a w
w
rev
4
,
8 . 10
,
2
1
=
= = =
u
t
t
u
rev
M
k
u
=
Stresses
Compressive is Max – Use for Static – Inside of Coil
3
max max
32
max
d
M
K
I
c M
K
i i
b b i
t
o = =
) 1 ( 4
1 4
2
÷
÷ ÷
=
C C
C C
K
i
b
For Fatigue – Slightly lower Outside Tensile Stress – Outside of Coil
) 1 ( 4
1 4
2
+
÷ +
=
C C
C C
K
o
b
3
max
32
max
d
M
K
o
b o
t
o =
3
min
32
min
d
M
K
o
b o
t
o =
Materials
see Tables 13-13 and 13-14, page 850
ewb
=S
ew
/0.577… for now
Strategy
M K
u
• fit over pin (if there is one)
• don’t exceed stresses
Select C, d
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion