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Spring Functions & Types
Helical Springs
Compression
Extension
Torsional
The Function(s) of Springs
Most fundamentally: to STORE ENERGY
Many springs can also: push
pull
twist
Some Review
F
y
k
linear springs: k=F/y
nonlinear springs:
dy
dF
k =
Parallel
k
total
=k
1
+k
2
+k
3
Series
3 2 1
1 1 1 1
k k k k
total
+ + =
Types of Springs
Helical:
Compression
Extension
Torsion
More Springs
Washer Springs:
Beams:
Power springs:
Helical Compression Springs
d diameter of wire
D mean coil diameter
L
f
free length
p pitch
N
t
Total coils
may also need:
D
o
and D
i
Length Terminology
Free Length
Assembled
Length
Max Working
Load
Bottomed
Out
minimum of 1015%
clash allowance
L
f
L
a
L
m
L
s
End Conditions
Plain
Square
Plain Ground
Square Ground
N
a
=
Active Coils
F
F
F
F
Stresses in Helical Springs
Spring Index C=D/d
C
C
K where
d
FD
K
s s
2
1 2
,
8
3
max
+
= =
t
t
F
F
T
T
Curvature Stress
under static loading, local yielding eliminates stress
concentration, so use K
s
under dynamic loading, failure happens below S
y
:
use K
s
for mean, K
w
for alternating
Inner part of spring is a stress concentration
(see Chapter 4)
K
w
includes both the direct shear factor and
the stress concentration factor
C C
C
K where
d
FD
K
w w
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
,
8
3
max
+
÷
÷
= =
t
t
Spring Deflection
G d
N FD
y
a
4
3
8
~
Spring Rate
G d
N FD
y
a
4
3
8
~
a
N D
G d
k
3
4
8
~
k=F/y
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
Static Spring Design
Inherently iterative
Some values must be set to calculate
stresses, deflections, etc.
Truly Design
there is not one “correct” answer
must synthesize (a little bit) in addition to
analyze
Material Properties
S
ut
ultimate tensile strength
Figure 133
Table 134 with S
ut
=Ad
b
S
ys
torsional yield strength
Table 136 – a function of S
ut
and set
Spring/Material Treatments
Setting
overstress material in same direction as applied
load
» increase static load capacity 4565%
» increase energy storage by 100%
use K
s
, not K
w
(stress concentration relieved)
Load Reversal with Springs
Shot Peening
What type of failure would this be most effective
against?
What are You Designing?
Given
F, y
k, y
Find
k
F
Such that:
Safety factor is > 1
Spring will not buckle
Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space
d, C, D
*
, L
f
*
, N
a
*
, clash
allowance (o)
**
, material
**
design variables
+
*  often can calculate from given
**  often given/defined
Static Spring Flow Chart
STRESSES
N
s
=S
ys
/t
for shut spring if possible
if not, for max working load
if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F
D, K
s
, K
w
material strengths
DEFLECTION
L
f
, y
shut
, F
shut
Three things to know:
• effect of d
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check buckling
ITERATE?
d, C
material
N
a
, o
CHECK
buckling, N
shut
, D
i
, D
o
N
shut
=S
ys
/t
shut
Static Design: Wire Diameter
Three things to know:
• effect of d
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check buckling
3
max
8
d
FD
K
s
t
t =
G d
N FD
y
a
4
3
8
~
**see Example 133A on MathCad CD
*maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b
use Table 132 to select standard d near
calculated d
( ) ( ) ( )  
) 2 ( 1
1 5 . 0 8
b
m
initial work s
A K
F F C N
d
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷ + +
=
t
o o
Based on N
s
=S
sy
/t and above equation for t:
K
m
=S
ys
/S
ut
Buckling
f
working init
f
L
y y
y
D
L
R S
+
=
'
= . .
Three things to know:
• effect of d
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check buckling
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
Material Properties
S
us
ultimate shear strength
S
us
~0.67 S
ut
S
fw´
torsional fatigue strength
Table 137  function of S
ut
, # of cycles
repeated, room temp, 50% reliability, no corrosion
S
ew´
torsional endurance limit
for steel, d < 10mm
see page 816 (=45 ksi if unpeened, =67.5 ksi if
peened)
repeated, room temp., 50% reliability, no corrosion
Modified Goodman for Springs
S
fw
, S
ew
are for torsional strengths, so von
Mises not used
0.5 S
fw
0.5 S
fw
t
a
t
m
S
fs
C
B
S
us
A
( )
fw us
us fw
fs
S S
S S
S
5 . 0
5 . 0
÷
=
Fatigue Safety Factor
0.5 S
fw
0.5 S
fw
t
a
t
m
S
fs
S
us
S
a
t
a
t
i
t
m
m
load
m
good
a
a
fs
S
N
t
=
t
a,load
= t
a,good
at intersection
( )
( )
a us i m fs
i us fs
fs
S S
S S
N
t t t
t
+ ÷
÷
=
…on page 828
F
i
=F
min
F
a
=(F
max
F
min
)/2
F
m
=(F
max
+F
min
)/2
What are you Designing?
Given
F
max
,F
min
, Ay
k, A y
Find
k
F
Such that:
Fatigue Safety Factor is > 1
Shut Static Safety Factor is > 1
Spring will not buckle
Spring is well below natural frequency
Spring will fit in hole, over pin, within vertical space
d, C, D
*
, L
f
*
, N
a
*
, clash
allowance (o)
**
, material
**
design variables
+
*  often can calculate from Given
**  often given/defined
Fatigue Spring Design Strategy
d, C
if GIVEN F,y, then find k; If GIVEN k, y, then find F
N
shut
=S
ys
/t
shut
CHECK
buckling, frequency,
N
shut
, D
i
, D
o
D, K
s
, K
w
material strengths
DEFLECTION
L
f
, y
shut
, F
shut
Two things to know:
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency
ITERATE?
material
N
a
, o
STRESSES
( )
( )
a us i m fs
i us fs
fs
S S
S S
N
t t t
t
+ ÷
÷
=
Fatigue Design:Wire Diameter
as before, you can iterate to find d, or you can use an equation
derived from relationships that we already know:
) 2 ( 1
min
1 34 . 1
1
67 . 0
8
b
a w
fw
b
s
fs
fs
m s
fs
F K
S
Ad
F K
N
N
F K
A
CN
d
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷ +
÷
÷ =
t
use Table 132 to select standard d near
calculated d
Two things to know:
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency
**see Example 134A on MathCad CD
*maintain units (in. or mm) for A, b
Natural Frequency: Surge
Two things to know:
• shortcut to finding d
• how to check frequency
Surge == longitudinal resonance
for fixed/fixed end conditions:
a
n
W
kg
f
2
1
=
(Hz)
…see pages 814815 for more
ideally, f
n
will be at least 13x more than f
forcing
…
it should definitely be multiple times bigger
Review of Design Strategy
Find Loading
Select C, d
Find stresses
Determine material properties
Find safety factor
Solve for d, pick standard d
Find stresses
Determine material properties
Check safety factor
Find Loading
Select C, safety factor
ITERATIVE USING d EQUATION
Strategy Review Continued
Find spring constant, N
a
, N
t
Find F
SHUT
(must find lengths and y’s to do this)
Find static shut shear stress and safety factor
Check Buckling
Check Surge
Check D
i
, D
o
if pin to fit over, hole to fit in
Consider the Following:
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
Extension Springs
As before, 4 < C < 12
However, no peening, no setting,
no concern about buckling
a w s
for K use
d
FD
K t
t
t ,
8
3
max
=
surge check is same as before
L
b
=d(N
a
+1)
Difference 1: Initial Force
deflection y
force F
F
i
“preloading”
F=F
i
+ky
a
i
N D
G d
y
F F
k
3
4
8
=
÷
=
Difference 1a: Deflection
G d
N D F F
y
a i
4
3
) ( 8 ÷
~
Difference 2: Initial Stress
take initial stress as the average stress between these lines,
then find F
i
Difference 3: Ends!: Bending
2 3
4 16
d
F
d
DF
K
b a
t t
o + =
C
d
D
d
R
C
C C
C C
K
b
= = =
÷
÷ ÷
=
2
2 2
) 1 ( 4
1 4
1
1
1 1
1
2
1
67 . 0
) (
) (
min
min
es
e
alt ut mean e
ut e
fb
S
S
S S
S S
N
=
+ ÷
÷
=
o o o
o
standard
end
Difference 3a: Ends: Torsion
4 4
1 4
,
8
2
2
3
max
2 2
÷
÷
= =
C
C
K
d
FD
K
w w
t
t
C
2
=2R
2
/d
pick a value >4
Materials
S
ut
– Same
S
ys
, S
fw
, S
ew
– same for body
S
ys
, S
fw
, S
ew
– see Tables 1310 and 13
11 for ends
Strategy
similar to compression + end stresses  buckling
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
Torsion Springs
• closewound, always load to close
Deflection & Spring Rate
E d
MDN
DN wire of length L
EI
ML
a
roundwire rev
a w
w
rev
4
,
8 . 10
,
2
1
=
= = =
u
t
t
u
rev
M
k
u
=
Stresses
Compressive is Max – Use for Static – Inside of Coil
3
max max
32
max
d
M
K
I
c M
K
i i
b b i
t
o = =
) 1 ( 4
1 4
2
÷
÷ ÷
=
C C
C C
K
i
b
For Fatigue – Slightly lower Outside Tensile Stress – Outside of Coil
) 1 ( 4
1 4
2
+
÷ +
=
C C
C C
K
o
b
3
max
32
max
d
M
K
o
b o
t
o =
3
min
32
min
d
M
K
o
b o
t
o =
Materials
see Tables 1313 and 1314, page 850
follow book on S
ewb
=S
ew
/0.577… for now
Strategy
M K
u
• fit over pin (if there is one)
• don’t exceed stresses
Select C, d
Helical Springs
Compression
Nomenclature
Stress
Deflection and Spring Constant
Static Design
Fatigue Design
Extension
Torsion
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