AIR POLLUTION & ITS LEGISLATIONS INDIA
Presentation By : Nandini Nim (626)
News- THE HINDU 12TH SEP’04
CO2 CONCENTRATION IN ATMOSPHERE UNPRECEDENTED
LONDON witnessed first three digit Fahrenheit temp.
15000 people died in France due to high temp. ( 1873) 2003 in A.P. Heat wave started on May 16 and continued for 27 days averaging 47 degrees Celsius Globally no. of hot days has increased –
continental precipitation has risen by 5-10% Glaciers and snow covers are reducing at a rapid rate
Frequency of natural disasters has increased
What is Air Pollution?
Introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment.
Sources of air pollution
Other Sources ozone (ground level)
Smoke and Soot
Smoke for forest fires
Indoor Air Pollution
Particulates(SPM ) and aerosols
Secondary Air pollutants (due to reactions in the air)
Pollen. salt spray.Volatiles (paint solvents . etc. dust.
Effects of Air Pollution
Air pollution is like a slow poison. the pollutants present in air damage our health and property. But over a long period of time.
. The ill effects of air pollution are not seen immediately.
lung cancer. Air pollution can cause carbon monoxide poisoning leading to suffocation and even death.
3. Air pollution causes depletion of ozone layer due to which ultraviolet radiations can reach the earth and cause damage. statues and metal structures. monuments.1. 5.
4. trees. Air pollution can cause acid rain which damages crop plants. buildings. 6. and make the soil acidic. tuberculosis and pneumonia. 2. Occupational Hazards
. Air pollution causes green house effect (or global warming) which leads to excessive heating of the earth and its atmosphere. Air pollution can cause breathing difficulties (respiratory problems) and diseases such as asthma.
Central Board to exercise the powers and perform the functions of a State Board in the Union Territories
Chapter II. 1974 (6 of 1974) .AIR ( PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION)ACT1981
An Act to provide for the prevention. control and abatement of air pollution.CENTRAL AND STATE BOARDS FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION
CPCB: The Central Pollution Control Board constituted under section 3 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.
SPCB: State Pollution Control Boards constituted under section 4 of Act 6 of 1974 to be State Boards under this Act.
EFFORT OF WORLD BODIES
1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro Kyoto protocol
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) • Methane (CH4) • Nitrous oxide (N2O) • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) • Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
• Energy • Fuel combustion • Energy industries • Manufacturing industries and construction • Transport • Other sectors
The constitutional provisions are backed by a number of laws – acts. It imposes a duty on every citizen ‘to protect and improve the natural environment including forests.
. Reference to the environment has also been made in the Directive Principles of State Policy as well as the Fundamental Rights. The Environment Protection Act of 1986(EPA) came into force soon after the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and is considered an umbrella legislation as it fills many gaps in the existing laws. rules and notifications. This later became the Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1985. The Department of Environment was established in India in 1980 to ensure a healthy environment for the country.AIR POLLUTION CONTROL LEGISLATIONS
In the Constitution of India it is clearly stated that it is the duty of the state to ‘protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country’. lakes rivers and wildlife’.
It entrusts the power of enforcing this act to the Central Pollution Control Board. 1981 – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act
• provides for the control and abatement of air pollution. 1987 – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act • empowers the central and state pollution boards to meet with grave emergencies of air pollution. The amendment of 1987 has sharpened its environmental focus and expanded its application to hazardous processes.
1982 – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules
• defines the procedures of the meetings of the Boards and the powers entrusted on them.CHRONOLOGY OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL LEGISLATIONS
1948 – Factories Act and Amendment in 1987 • the first to express concern for the working environment of the workers.
1982 – Atomic Energy Act • deals with the radioactive waste.
a total of 78% of cities are exceeding the standard.CSE STUDY
About 78% cities (141 cities) exceed the standard set for particulate matter of size below 10 microns (PM10)." CSE said
. exceed the standard by more than 3 times. The PM10 monitoring network has doubled between 2005 and 2010 .it has increased from 96 to 180 cities. Ghaziabad. Gwalior. and Delhi are top five critically polluted cities. West Singbhum. During this period the cities with low level of pollution has fallen from 10 to 2 and the number of critically polluted cities have increased from 49 to 89 cities. Raipur. 26 cities have most critical levels of PM10. In 2010. As many as 90 cities have critical levels of PM10 and of this. In 2005 about 75% of cities exceeded the standard.
. Nepal and Bangladesh. India has the worst air pollution in the entire world. which can be termed clean keeping PM10 levels (respirable particulates) as criteria however over the years SO2 levels have fallen sharply in many cities but the NO2 levels are increasing in many cities. Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal.NASA research findings.
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) considers air to be ‘clean’ if the levels are below 50 per cent of the prescribed standards for pollutants. This has serious public health implications. Pakistan. There are very few cities. In about 80 per cent of cities (of a total of 127 cities/towns monitored under the NAMP) at least one criteria pollutant exceeded the annual average ambient air quality standards. The skies over North India are seasonally filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayas. During 2007 only 2 per cent cities have low air pollution on the basis of PM10. beating China. according to a study released during this year’s World Economic Forum in Davos The World Health Organization estimates that about two million people die prematurely every year as a result of Air pollution
CHAPTER I : PRELIMINARY
Short title. liquid or gaseous substance [including noise] present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment
."air pollutant" means any solid. extent & commencement
CHAPTER 2 : CENTRAL AND STATE BOARDS FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION
Central Pollution Control Board State Pollution Control Boards constituted under section 4 of Act 6 of 1974 to be State Boards under this Act Terms and conditions of service of members Constitution of State Boards Central Board to exercise the powers and perform the functions of a State Board in the Union Territories
. compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to air pollution and the measures devised for its effective prevention. carry out and sponsor investigations and research relating to problems of air pollution and prevention. control or abatement of air pollution • plan and organize the training of persons • organize through mass media a comprehensive programme • lay down standards for the quality of air • collect. control or abatement of air pollution • plan and cause to be executed a nation -wide programme for the prevention.CHAPTER 3 : POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF BOARDS
Functions of Central Board
• advise the Central Government on any matter concerning the improvement of the quality of air and the prevention. control or abatement of air pollution • co-ordinate the activities of the State Boards and resolve disputes among them • provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards.
industrial plant or manufacturing process • to inspect air pollution control areas at such intervals as it may think necessary. assess the quality of air therein
. any control equipment.Functions of State Boards
• to advise the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention. at all reasonable times. control or abatement of air pollution • to inspect.
CHAPTER 4 : PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION
Power to declare air pollution control areas
Power to give instructions for ensuring standards for emission from automobiles Restrictions on use of certain industrial plants Person carrying on industry. not to allow emission of air pollutants in excess of the standards laid down by State Board Power of entry and inspection Power to obtain information Power to take samples of air or emission and procedure to be followed in connection therewith Reports of the result of analysis on samples taken under section 26
State Air Laboratory
Analysts Reports of analysts Appeals
ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT Contribution by Central Government Fund of Board Borrowing powers of Board Budget Annual report
Accounts and audit
.CHAPTER 5 : FUND.
( 18 m/6 Yrs/5000)
Offences by government departments Protection of action taken in good faith
Reports and returns
Bar of jurisdiction
.6 PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE
Offences by companies.CHAPTER .
CHAPTER 7 .MISCELLANEOUS
Power of State Government to supersede State Board Dissolution of State Boards constituted under the Act Maintenance of register Power of Central Government to make rules Power of State Government to make rules
Av g. Dev
Av g. Dev
Av g.Ambient Air Quality of Mumbai for January 2004
Ty pe of Are a
Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter
Suspended Particulate Matter
Ultraviolet Fluorescence 120 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 120 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 Jacob & Hochheiser (Na-Arsenite) Method Modified
Oxides Nitrogen (NOx)
Annual Average* 24 hours**
.1 m3/minute).0 mg/m3
ASS Method using EPM 2000 Filter paper .0 µg/m3
140 µg/m3 200 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 0. * ** 24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. .0 mg/m3
0. Rural & other Areas 60 µg/m3 Sensitive Areas
Method of measurement
. it may exceed but not on two consecutive days.4 mg/ m3 5. 2% of the time.50 µg/m3
.75 µg/m3 0.Gas Phase Chemiluminescence
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)
Annual Average* 24 hours**
360 µg/m3 500 µg/m3 120 µg/m3 150 µg/m3 1. .
Annual Average* 24 hours**
8 hours** 1 hour
.0 mg/m3 4.00 µg/m3 0.
RespirableParticulate Matter (RPM) (size less than 10 microns) Lead (Pb)
Annual Average* 24 hours** Annual Average* 24 hours**
1.0 mg/ m3 2.4 mg/m3 2.1 mg/m3 0. However.
.1 mg/ m3 0.1 mg/ m3 0.Non Dispersive Infra Red (NDIR) Spectroscopy
Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.0 mg/m3 10.4 mg/m3 1.0 mg/m3
1. (Average flow rate not less than 1.Pollutants
Concentration in ambient air Industrial Areas Residential.5 µg/m3 0.75 µg/m3
70 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 50 µg/m3 75 µg/m3 0.High Volume Sampling.
.AIR PREVENTION & CONTROL RULES.
Chapter 6 -ANNUAL REPORT OFTHE CENTRAL BOARD
7.1. Chapter 7 -ACCOUNT OF THE CENTRAL BOARD
. Chapter 4 -TEMPORARY ASSOCIATION OF PERSONS WITH THE CENTRAL BOARD 5. 1981 (14 of 1981) the Central Government in consultation with the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution hereby makes the following rules.PRELIMINARY 2. Chapter 3 4. Chapter 2 -PROCEDURE FOR TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS OF THE BOARD AND ITS COMMITTEES 3.In exercise of the powers conferred by section 53 of Air Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. Chapter 5 -BUDGET OFTHE CENTRAL BOARD
6. Chapter 1. namely .
• "year" means the financial year commencing on the 1st day of April. • "Chairman" means the Chairman of the Central Board.Chapter-1 Preliminary
Short title & commencement Definitions . • "meeting" means a meeting of the Central Board or a meeting of Committee constituted by the Central Board. • words and expressions not defined in these rules but defined in the Act shall have the meaning assigned to them in the Act.
. • "form" means a form set out in the Schedules.In these rules unless the context otherwise requires. • "section" means a section of the Act. 1981. • "Schedule" means a Schedule appended to these rules. • "member Secretary" means the member secretary of the Central Board.• "Act" means the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.
in his discretion. • Fifteen clear days' notice of an ordinary meeting and three days' notice of a special meeting specifying the time and the place at which such meeting is to be held and an agenda of business to be transacted thereat. shall be given by the member-secretary or Chairman to the members or any other officers of the Board. • The Chairman shall. upon a written request of not less than five members of the Central Board or upon a direction of the Central Government. • No member shall be entitled to bring forward for the consideration of a meeting any matter of which he has not given ten clear-day's notice to the member Secretary unless the Chairman.Chapter -2 Procedure for transaction of business of the board and its committees
Notice of Meetings
• Meeting of the Central Board shall be held on such dates as may be fixed by the Chairman. call a special meeting of the Central Board. permits him to do so.
• Five members shall form the quorum for any meeting.
Maintaining order at meetings. the presiding officer shall adjourn the meeting to such time on the following or on such other future date as he may fix.
All questions to be decided by majority
• All questions at a meeting shall be decided by-a majority of votes of members present and voting shall be by raising of hands in favour of the proposal.
• The Chairman or presiding officer shall preserve order at a meeting. • If at any time fixed for any meeting or during the course of any meeting a quorum is not present.Presiding Officer
• Every meeting shall be presided over by the Chairman and in his absence.
• Record of the proceedings of every meeting along with the names of members who attended the meeting shall be kept by the member-secretary in a book maintained by him exclusively for the purpose. • The minutes of the previous meeting shall be read at the beginning of every succeeding meeting and shall be confirmed and signed by the Chairman or presiding officer at such meeting. by a presiding officer to be of elected by the members present from amongst themselves. the Chairman or presiding member shall adjoin the meeting and if a quorum is not present after the expiration of fifteen minutes from such adjournment.
no business which is in the agenda or of which notice has not been given by a member under of the rule 3.
. shall be transacted at any meeting. • Either at the beginning of the meeting or after the conclusion of the debate on a motion during the meting.
Order of business
• At any meeting business shall be transacted in the order in which it is entered in the agenda circulated to the members under sub-rule (3) of rule 3. • Provision of Chapter-2 of these rules shall as far as practicable.Business to be transacted at a meeting
• No business • Except with not entered sub-rule (5) shall be transacted in the meeting without quorum.
Procedure for transaction of business of committees constituted by the Board under sub-section (1) of Section 11
• The time and place of the meting of a committee constituted by the Central Board under sub-section (I) of section 11 shall be as specified by the Chairman of the committee. the Chairman or presiding officer or a member may suggest a change in the order of business as entered in the agenda and if the majority of the members present agree. the Chairman or presiding officer shall agree to such a change. the permission of the chairman or presiding officer. apply to the meeting of the committee constituted under section 11.
for each day of the actual meeting of the committee which he attends.CHAPTER 3
A member of a committee other than a member of the Board shall be paid
an allowance of rupees fifty if he is a resident of Delhi and rupees seventy-five (inclusive of daily allowance) travelling allowance at such rate as is admissible to a grade I officer of the Central Government in the case of non resident. Provided that in case of a member of Parliament who is also a member of the Central Board. the said daily and travelling allowances will be admissible when the Parliament is not in session and on production of a certificate by the member that he has not drawn any such allowance for the same journey and halts from any other Government source.
he shall be entitled to get an allowance of rupees fifty per day for each day of actual meeting of the Central Board in which he is so associated.
.Temporary Association of Persons with the Central Board
Manner and purpose of Association of persons with the Central Board under sub-section (1) of section 12
The Central Board may invite any person whose assistance or advise is considered useful in performing any of its functions. to participate in the deliberations of any of its meetings or the meetings of a committee formed by it
Fees and allowances to be paid to such temporary association of persons under sub-section (3) of section 12
If the person associated with the Board under rule 13 happens to be a non-official resident in Delhi.Chapter 4 .
he shall be entitled to get an allowance of rupees seventy five per day (inclusive of daily allowance) for each day of actual meeting of the Central Board when he is so associated and also to travelling allowance at such rates as is admissible to a grade I officer of the Central Government. Notwithstanding anything in sub-rules (I) and (2) if such person is a
Government servant or an employee in a Government undertaking. he shall be entitled to travelling and daily allowances only at the rates admissible under the relevant rules applicable to him:
. If such person is non-resident of Delhi.
.Budget of the Central Board
Form of budget estimates under Section 34
• The form in which and time within which the budget may be prepared and provided and forwarded to the government shall be as provided in forms I. • The estimated receipts and expenditure shall be accompanied by the revised budget estimates for the current year. • The budget shall. as far as may be. III and IV of Schedule 1. based on the account heads specified in Schedule II. II.Chapter 5.
.Chapter 6 – Annual report of the Central Board
Form of Annual Report under section 35
• The annual report in respect of the year last ended giving a true and full account of the activities of the Central Board during the previous financial year shall contain the particulars specified in Schedule 111 and shall be submitted to the Central Government by 15th of May each year.
Account of the Central board
Form of annual statement of accounts of the Central Board under section 36
The annual statement of accounts of the Central Board shall be in forms V to IX.Chapter 7 .
). steadily. Subsequently the programme was renamed as National Air Monitoring Programme (N. The number of monitoring stations under N.NAMP
Central Pollution Control Board initiated National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM) programme in the year 1984 with 7 stations at Agra and Anpara.
.A. has increased.M.P.M. to 295 by 2000-01 covering 99 cities/towns in 28 States and 4 Union Territories of the country.A.P.
.5. and •Low pollution (L): where the EF is less than 0.5 .1. •Moderate pollution (M) : with and EF between 0.A. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2). •High pollution (H) : when the EF is between 1..M.NAMP
Under N.5. four air pollutants viz.0.5..0 . Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2 and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM/PM10)
Observed annual mean concentration of criteria pollutant Exceedence Factor = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Annual standard for the respective pollutant and area class The four air quality categories are: •Critical pollution (C) : when EF is more than 1.1.P.
Tuticorin.5 times the annual standard) and merely 19 cities are at moderate levels.PM10 (Respirable Particulates)Trends
In 2007 data of 121 cities has been analysed and only three cities Dewas. In western and eastern India. Kozhikode recorded low pollution level. there is usually a mixed trend. including Shillong. Nagda and Jamnagar but increased in Mumbai. In the NCR towns Noida. Gajraula and Parwanoo have low PM10 levels. Visakhapatnam. and Bangalore there is an increasing trend. which is 50 per cent below the standard. some cities show an increase. A sharp declining trend has been noted in Thiruvanthapuram. Angul. Tirupati. though the cities generally have lower PM10 levels compared to the northern ones.5 times the standard). Rourkela and Howrah. In cities such as Hyderabad. Faridabad including NCT Delhi have high levels of PM10 and in past two years the levels have increased. The PM10 levels remain persistently high in the northern region. In southern India. Kota and Satna.
. show an increasing trend and in the west PM10 levels have declined in some cities like Ahmedabad. Indian cities are reeling under heavy particulate pollution with 52 percent of cities (63 cities) hitting critical levels (exceeding 1. Kochi and Mysore during 2000-2007 PM10 levels are gradually reducing. Solapur. 36 cities with high levels (1–1. Only in hill towns such as Shimla. Eastern cities.
SOURCE : MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT. INDIA