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Introduction to robotics.
This content was developed for the purpose of introducing robotics to student of NFC hyderabad TS as part of mechatronics course. It gives overview of robotics such as what are DH paramets what is direct and inverse kinematics, What is jocobean and how it can be used to find singularity.

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definition of robot in ISO 8373: "an automatically controlled,

reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable

in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or

mobile for use in industrial automation applications." This

definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics

, the European Robotics Research Network (EURON), and

many national standards committees.

designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices

through variable programmed motions for the performance of a

variety of tasks." (Robotics Institute of America)

• Fanuc Robotics (Japan)

• Kuka (Germany)

• ABB (1988 through merger of ASEA of Sweden

and Brown, Boveri & Cie of Switzerland)

• Stäubli (Switzerland)

• Adept (USA)

• Yskawa Motorman (Japan)

Robots are used in almost any industry

where repetitive tasks are involved, or

the task is difficult manually, or

dangerous, such as

welding, painting, or surface finishing in the

aerospace or automotive industries

electronics and consumer products assembly

and inspection inspection of parts by robot

assisted sensors or in the form of a Coordinate

Measurement Machine (CMM)

underwater and space exploration

hazardous waste remediation in

Cartesian or gantry robot: Cartesian robots have

three linear joints that use the Cartesian coordinate system (X, Y, and Z).

They also may have an attached wrist to allow for rotational movement.

The three prismatic joints deliver a linear motion along the axis.

Cylindrical robot : The robot has at least one rotary joint

at the base and at least one prismatic joint to connect the links. The rotary

joint uses a rotational motion along the joint axis, while the prismatic joint

moves in a linear motion. Cylindrical robots operate within a cylindrical-

shaped work envelope.

Spherical Robot

Scara : Commonly used in assembly application, this selectively

compliant arm assembly is primarily cylindrical in design. It features two

parallel joints that provide compliance in one selected plane.

Articulate: All joints are revolute. Most industrial robots are of

this type.

Parallel Link: example Stewart’s platform, spider from Adept

Cartesian (PPP)

Cylindrical (RPP)

Spherical

(RRP) Spherical (RRP)

Robot consists of rigid links

connected to one another by

joints which allow relative motion

of neighboring links

Links

Joints

Prismatic: Sliding joint

Revolute: rotation

End effector:

A the free end of the link chain

(normaly wrist) is the end-effector.

Gripper

Welding torch

Electro magnet

Or any other tool

Payload is the maximum load the

that robot can carry with out

compromising its speed and

accuracy.

Always specified at some distance

from wrist.

Auxiliary payload:

The load which can be put on other

arms

Normally much higher then actual

Number of independent variables

used to define the configuration of

the robot

Number of motors used gives the dof of

robot

In 3-D space the robot must have 6 dof

to position and orient the tool

▪ 3-dof for positioning

▪ Another 3-dof for orientation of the tool

Two types of work volume

Dextrous : is that volume of space

which the robot end-effector can reach

with all orientation

Reachable work volume: that volume of

space which the robot can reach with at

least one orientation

A taught point is one that the

robot is moved to physically, and

then the joint position

recorded/stored

Points are taught using teach

pendent

Repeatability is the precision by

which the robot can be positioned at

its taught point

The precision with which the

computed points can be attained is

called accuracy.

Computed point are points which

the robot has to reach but were

never taught to it. For example point

coming from camera or directly

programmed

Accuracy is lower bounded by

repeatability

Accuracy is affected by the precision of

Real time

i/o cards (analog and digital) can be attached

to robot controller

i/o signals are read in real time and action

taken

There is a upper limit to the maximum number

of i/o the robot can access

Non-real time

Cannot be used to generate interrupts

Cannot be used modify the motion all ready

started

OPC, serial communication etc, (manufacturer

dependent)

Theorientation of an object can be

defined by attaching a coordinate

system to the object and then

describing it with respect to some

reference coordinate system

Tool coordinate system

attached to the tool or end effector

Wrist coordinate system

Attached to the wrist of the robot. Fixed during

manufacturing. Tool C.S is defined w.r.t this

Base coordinate system

Attached to the work piece or table etc

Global / world coordinate system

A fixed coordinate system w.r.t the robot. All

other coordinate system gets calibrated with

respect to this.

Translation: when origin one

coordinate system (C.S.) is

displaced w.r.t a ref. C.S. The axis

remain parallel

Rotation: When one C.S. is rotated

about any axis in some ref. C.S. This

is described by a 3x3 rotation

matrix.

Transformation = rotation and

translation

Tocompletely describe a tool with

respect to some C.S we need to

know both the

Position of the origin of tool C.S

And Orientation of the tool C.S

Frame includes both position and

orientation of an object

Mapping between frames is carried

out using Homogeneous

transformation. It is a 4X4 matrix

Roll pitch yaw

Start with the frame {B} coincident with a known referance frame

{A}.First rotate {b} about X̂ A by an angle γ , then about ŶA

by an angle β . and then rotate about Ẑ A by an angle α

Z-Y-X Eural angle

Start with frame {B} consident with known frame {A}.

First rotate {B} about Ẑ B by an angle α , then rotate

about ŶB by an angle β , and the rotate about X̂ B by angle γ

Start with frame {B} consident with known frame {A}.

First rotate {B} about Ẑ B by an angle α , then rotate

about ŶB by an angle β , and the rotate about Ẑ B by angle γ

Equivalent angle axis

Start with frame {B} consident with known frame {A}.

First rotate {B} about a vector A K̂ by an angle θ , according to the right hand

rule

Forward kinematics

Given the joint find the configuration

(orientation + position) of the Tool

Coordinate Point (TCP) w.r.t world or

base frame

Solution easy

Use in coordinate measuring machine

Inverse kinematics

Given the configuration of TCP find the

joint angle

A system is solvable if some algorithm

exist to find all joint angles, given the

end-effector position and orientation

Equation are nonlinear- difficult to solve

Multiple solutions may exist

Method of solution

Closed form solution

▪ Pieper showed that robots having 6dof and 3

consecutive intersect at a point can have closed

form solution

Numerical solution

For kinematic point a

link is described by

two attribute

Link length “ai-1”

▪ Directed from axis “i-

1” to “i”

Link twist “αi−1 “

▪ As per rigahd rule

thumb along “ai-1”

Each link is

numbered starting

from zero for the

When is “ai-1” not defined uniquely ?

Axis intersects

Axis are parallel

When is “αi−1 “ not defined uniquely?

When one link is

described w.r.t

another link two more

parameters come into

picture

Link offset “di”

Joint angle “θi”

Either of to is variable

Prismatic d is variable

Revolute θ is variable

These four parameter

ai-1, αi−1, di, θi is called

“d”and “θ”

What is the direction of “d” and θ

Pointing from axis “i-1” to “I”

For θ use right hand rule

Axis specific motion

PTP the fastest motion

Path related motions

Linear

Circular

Spline

Multiple solution is a problem

for PTP motion only

How multiple solution is help full ?

Obstacle avoidance

Occurs only in case of PTP motion

Orientation control:

The orientation of a tool can be different at the start

point and end point of a motion. There are several

different types of transition from the start orientation

to the end orientation.

Types of control

Slandered

Wrist PTP

constant

The orientation of the tool changes continuously during

the motion. The orientation is achieved by rotating and

pivoting about the TCP.

The CP motion is broken down into several

small PTP motions by the robot controller.

This excludes the possibility of a singularity

occurring in the case of Wrist PTP. The robot

can deviate slightly from its path,

however.

Wrist PTP not suitable if the robot must

follow its path exactly, e.g. in the case of laser

welding.

The orientation of tool remains

constant

Start position orientation is fixed

End position orientation is

disregarded

Needs 3 points

Draws only half circle (specific to

KUKA)

Singularity comes from matrix

inversion

one to one correspondence between

joint C.S and Cartesian C.S. is lot

Singularity is a configuration of the

robot

One or more degree of freedom is

lost

Small change in Cartesian

coordinate results in large change

Forarticulate 6 dof robot 3 types of

singularity exists ( for example KukaR6)

Overhead: the wrist root point (intersection of axes A4,

A5 andA6) is located vertically above axis 1.

Extended: the wrist root point (intersection of axes A4, A5

and A6) is located in the extension of axes A2 and A3 of the

robot. The robot is at its limit of work volume

Wrist :In the wrist axis singularity position, the axes

A4 and A6 are parallel to one another and axis A5 is within the

range ±0.01812°

Itis a multidimensional form of

derivative

Relates joint velocity with Cartesian co-

ordinate.

It is square matrix called J

J is a function of joint angles

When the Jacobian becomes singular i.e.

det(J) = 0, under certain configuration

the, the robot is said to be in singular

position

SCARA Robot Kinematics

A 4-axis SCARA (Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm) robot

has parallel shoulder, elbow, and wrist rotary joints, and a linear

vertical axis through the center of rotation of the wrist. This type

of manipulator is very common in light-duty applications such as

electronic assembly.

Mechanism Description

In this example, the upper-arm length (L ) is 400 mm, and the

1

2

elbow joint (E), and the wrist joint (W) have resolutions of

1000 counts per degree. Rotation in the positive direction for

all 3 joints is counter-clockwise when viewed from the top.

The vertical axis (V) has a resolution of 100 counts per

millimeter, and movement in the positive direction goes up.

When the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints are at their zero-

degree positions, the two links are both extended along the X-

axis and the tool orientation C is at zero degrees. When the

vertical axis is at its home position, it is 250 mm above the Z-

axis zero point. Due to wiring constraints, rollover of the

rotary axes is not permitted.

Forward Kinematics

Inverse Kinematics

Limiting ourselves to positive values of the elbow (E) angle, producing

the right-armed case (done by selecting the positive arc-cosine

solutions), we can write our inverse kinematic equations as follows:

Velocity of tool point w.r.t joint speed

x = −{L1 sin( S ) + L2 sin( S + E )}S − L2 sin( S + E ) E

y = {L cos( S ) + L cos( S + E )}S + L cos( S + E ) E

1 2 2

C = S + E + W

z = V

Or in matrix form

x − L1 sin( S ) − L2 sin( S + E ) − L2 sin( S + E ) 0 0 S

y L cos( S ) + L cos( S + E ) L cos( S + E )

= 1 2 2 0 0 E ⇒ J = L1 L2 Sin( E )

*

c 1 1 1 0 W

z 0 0 0 1 V Singulatity when J = 0

− L1 sin( S ) − L2 sin( S + E ) − L2 sin( S + E ) 0 0

L cos( S ) + L cos( S + E ) L cos( S + E ) 0 0 ⇒E=0

J = 1 2 2

1 1 1 0

0 0 0 1

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