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D20091034819 o Sarah Sabillah bt Ibrahim ~ D20091034820 o Noor Zanarriyah bt Mohamad Gani ~ D20091034827 o Nur Fathiah bt Abu Bakar Al Bakri

~ D20091034834 o Siti Shahida bt Mohd Aziri ~ D20091034836 oZainab Fasihah bt Muhamad Sukardi ~ D20091034842

Dalila bt Aidi ~

Scenario 7
I cant resist They are yummy Series of field trip were arranged by the Biology Department to several orchads and forests during flowering and fruiting seasons. What caught your attention during the visit were the diverse types of fruits : some are attractive with bright and catchy colors that makes your mouth water, some with peculiar shapes and winged and some looks dull tastesless. You were given chances to taste some fruits in the orchads by the owner and some edible fruits from the forests by the forestry rangers. Back home, when you go to the markets and hypermarkets you saw variety of delicious common commercial fruits sold there.

You as a research officer were then asked by the department to produce a comprehensive but precise scientific documentation on what caught your attentions most along the visits. The documentations Must be creative and attractive yet informative; you may also add information from your readings and experiencesand do not forget to

paste in photos!!

Facts

Ideas

Learning Issues

Action

1. Field trips arranged by the Biology Department to several orchads and forests during flowering and fruiting seasons

1. The pollinating agent contribute to diverse types of fruits.

1. How pollination occurs and what are the factors affecting it.

1.surfing internet 2.own research 3.searching from the library

2. Many diverse types of fruits in the orchads and forests.

2. The fruits might have mutated.

2. Why the fruits have peculiar shapes and winged and some looks dull tasteless. 3. What hormone is used to produce a lot of fruits in a certain time and how do they apply it.

3. Attractive fruits with bright and catchy colours

3. The fruits were nourished by synthetic hormone and produce a lot of fruits in a certain time.

Facts

Ideas

Learning Issues

Action

4. Some fruits with peculiar shapes and winged and some looked dull tasteless.

4. Fertile soil and good fertilizers contribute to the production of huge amount of attractive fruits.

4. What type of fertilizers are used?

5. Got chances to taste some fruit in the orchards and forest

5. Genetic engineering technique is applied in the production of fruit

5. What are the technique used to produce a good quality fruit

6. There are several distributions of seeds in fruits.

6. What are the types of placentation in fruits.

HOW DOES POLLINATION OCCUR AND WHAT ARE THE FACTORS AFFECTING IT????
a)Abiotic pollination -anemophily, pollinated by wind -hydrophily, pollinated by water b) Biotic pollination - entomophily, pollinated by insects - zoophily, pollinated by birds or bats(vertebrates)

Types of pollination,,,,, 1)Cross pollination(allogamy) - pollen is delivered to a flower from a different plant. 2)Self pollination(autogamy) - pollen from one flower pollinates the same flower or other flowers of the same individual. 3)Cleistogamy - self-pollination that occurs before the flower opens requires consideration of pollenizers and pollinators. Factors affecting fruit tree production include the physiological condition of the tree, lack of pollination, weather conditions, and insect pests and diseases

Why the fruit have peculiar shape and


winged and some looks dull tasteless.
Mutation??

-are alterations in the expression of a gene -these will lead to changes in what a gene does.

Effects of mutation: produce fruit of somewhat different appearance from the rest of the fruit on the tree.

APPLE

TOMATOES

alterations like fruit color or shape or physiological process (the sucrose accumulator) not visibly detectable.

Why do plants have peculiar shape? Come out with different background varieties. For instance peach trees, was identified as Stark Saturn, U.S. Plant Pat. No. 5,123, Example: Fruits with peculiar shapes:

What hormone is used to produce a lot of ripen fruits in a certain time and how do they apply it? Hormone used: Ethylene

Composition:
synthetic compound; ethephon Amino acid Methionine ACC(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid)

How do they apply the hormone:


by spraying onto plants or fruits that need to be ripen

Functions of ethylene:

Stimulates fruit ripening Stimulates shoot and root growth and differentiation (triple response) Stimulates leaf and fruit abscission. Stimulates flower opening. Stimulates flower and leaf senescence. Stimulates fruit ripening.

What is fertilizers?
Fertilizers are chemical compounds applied to promote plant and fruit growth.

There is two types of fertilizers:


Inorganic fertilizers
Organic fertilizers

Organic fertilizers
Natural occurring compound
Processed organic fertilizers from natural sources Cover crops are also grown to enrich soil as a green manure through nitrogen fixation from the atmosphere by bacterial nodules on roots as well as phosphorus (through nutrient mobilization) content of soils

The benefits of organic fertilizers


o Increased physical and biological storage mechanisms to soils o Mitigating risks of over-fertilisation o Nutrient content, solubility, nutrient release rate are typically much lower than inorganic fertilize

Inorganic fertilizers
Naturally occurring inorganic fertilizers Manufactured through chemical processes naturally occurring deposits

What are the technique used to produce a good quality fruit.

Technique Used: Genetic Engineering

Terms : Altering and modifying the genes in a living organisms to produce genetically modified organism (GMO)
GMO is called a transgenic organisms

Advantages of using Genetic Engineering


Enabled fruits and veggies in the orchad to be cultivated commercially. Can produce a better quality of fruits from time to time. It can enhance their growth or nutritional properties

TRANSGENIC FRUITS
APPLE
CORNS

Learning Issues

Basal placentation ovules attached to the floor of the ovary (long-section). Apical placentation ovules attached to the roof of the ovary (long-section). Axile placentation separate locule for each carpel and the ovules attached to placentae in the middle where the septa come together (crosssection) that belong to the citrus fruit type.

Parietal placentation ovules attached to the wall of a unilocular ovary (cross-section). Free-central placentation ovules attached to a peg or stalk that arises from the ovary floor but which does not reach the roof; ovules usually few to many (long-section). Marginal placentation arranged along the suture of a single, simple pistil (cross-section).

Examples on Types of Placentation

Thanks a lot from us.