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The Bates

An ISD ‘Model’ to Assist in the
Development of e-learning
 specializing in the strategic use of e-learning in higher
 President and CEO of Tony Bates Associates Ltd, a private
company specializing in consultancy and training in the
planning and management of e-learning and distance
 Chair person and advisor for numbers of Universities across
the world
 Director of Distance Education & Technology, Research,
and Information Technology in numbers of Universities
 Tutors online
 Author of nine (9) books about Technology, e-learning, and
Distance Education
Before we begin…

Personal experience with an e-learning

program Spring/Summer 2001

What is your experience with e-learning?

- Practitioner ?
- Student ?
E-learning continuum

Face to Classroom Laptop Mixed Distance

Face Aids Programs Mode Education

No E-learning Fully E-

from: Bates, A.W. (2004)

Bates Model
“Front-end System

A four-phased process which

emphasizes finding the best
technological match to an
instruction situation, mostly used
within e-learning context in high
education and training.
Four phases of Front-End System Design

 Course outline development

 Selection of Media

 Development/production of materials

 Course delivery
The Bates Model
• Emphasis on
Planning and
• Strategic planning
approach for e-

Gustafson, K.L. & Branch, R.M. (2002, p. 58)

Systems approach?
Systematic approach?

Input Process Output

E-learning implementation fails
when mismanaged

Careful Novice
hint: Module 7
Plan for Change
Long term infrastructure
Personnel acceptance
Balance/ appropriateness
Ask questions ..
Questions to be addressed:
 What are the unique features of F2F teaching,
and for what kinds of learner are these essential?

 What are the unique benefits of being on

campus, and what kinds of learner will benefit
most from this?

 What do the necessary processes of planning and

managing technology do to the culture of an
academic institution?

From: Bates, A. W.
Not a better/worse argument
• F2F vs. Distance
 Social experience
 Faculty
 Cultural change - ‘postindustrial
form or organization’
Road to Acceptance

 Student preparation  dependent to

independent learners
 Faculty development  long term
 Other support departments 
student support services
Bate’s Support Structure

 Technology infrastructure support

 Educational Media support staff

 Instructional design support staff

 Subject experts
“…quality in teaching with technology
requires expertise not just in content but
also in course or program evaluation and
maintenance.” (Bates , 2004)
Where do you see yourself?

 What will be your role?

Technology, ID, education media, SME

Further beyond The Bates
 Boutique model

 Collegial material development

 Project management
Media Decision Making
ACTION model
 Access

 Cost

 Teaching function

 Interactivity

 Organizational Issues

 Novelty

 Speed
Advantages/ Distadvantages
(-) (+
 E-learning
 Considering broader

 Need to consider digital  Larger context

 Developing learning
 Not really a model Objects
What Now?

 In your experience have you been

enthralled with e-learning
 What’s the future hold?
Bates, A. W. (2000). Managing Technological Change: Strategies for college and university leaders.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Bates, A.W. (2004). The promise and myths of e-learning in post-secondary education. In Castells,
M. (ed.) The Network Society: A Cross-cultural Perspective. Cheltenham, UK/Northampton MA:
Edward Elgar.

Bates, A.W. (2005). Policy issues and challenges in planning and implementing e-learning in teacher
education. In Resta, P. (ed.) Teacher Development in an e-Learning Age: a Policy and Planning
Guide. Paris: UNESCO

Bates, A.W. (2007). Strategic planning for e-learning in a Polytechnic. In Bullen, M. & Janes, D.
(eds.), Making the Transition to E-Learning: Strategies and Issues. British Columbia Institute of
Technology, Canada; University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Bates, A.W. (2008). Transforming distance education through new technologies. In Evans, T.,
Haughey, M., and Murphy, D. (eds.) The International Handbook of Distance Education. Bingley,
U.K.: Emerald Press.

Gustafson, K.L. & Branch, R.M. (2002). Survey of Instructional Development Models. (Fourth
Edition). ERIC Clearninghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse, NY.