Metrology

by

P.Venkateswara Rao Professor in Mechanical Engg. IIT Delhi

4/17/2013

Prof.P.V.Rao

I.I.T Delhi

1

Inspection by Measurement
Direct Measurement ◦ Vernier Caliper, Vernier Height gauge, Verneir Depth gauge ◦ Outside Micrometer, Inside Micrometer, Depth Micrometer, ◦ Slip gauges (gauge blocks), length bars,etc.  Indirect Measurement ◦ Comparators

4/17/2013 Prof.P.V.Rao I.I.T Delhi 2

Slip gauge Box

4/17/2013

Prof.P.V.Rao

I.I.T Delhi

3

Comparators Comparing the manufactured part to the master part envisaged by the designer  Dimensional variation from the master part can be amplified and measured so as to get the deviation and the instruments for doing that are called comparators  ◦ Mechanical Comparators ◦ Optical Comparators 4/17/2013 Prof.V.P.T Delhi 4 .Rao I.I.

Design Considerations The instrument must be sufficiently robust  The system response should be faster  The contact plunger should be provided with a hardened steel or diamond to minimize wear & tear  Means should be provided for easy lifting of the plunger  4/17/2013 Prof.Rao I.V.P.T Delhi 5 .I.

P.V.T Delhi 6 . but it should also be capable of measuring the wide range  The recording scale should be linear  The system should have good repeatability  Comparator should be versatile  4/17/2013 Prof.Design Considerations Magnification should be as high as possible.Rao I.I.

V.I.P.Rao I.Mechanical Comparators Dial Indicators 4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 7 .

I.Johansson Mikrokator 4/17/2013 Prof.V.P.T Delhi 8 .Rao I.

Sigma Comparator 4/17/2013 Prof.I.P.Rao I.V.T Delhi 9 .

Optical Comparator 4/17/2013 Prof.V.Rao I.I.P.T Delhi 10 .

Rao I.P.I.V.Zeiss Ultra optimeter 4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 11 .

Rao I.V.T Delhi 12 .Pneumatic comparator 4/17/2013 Prof.I.P.

Pneumatic comparator 4/17/2013 Prof.I.V.T Delhi 13 .P.Rao I.

P.  4/17/2013 Prof. The reading can be obtained with the help of main scale and Vernier scale.T Delhi 14 . It consists of a sliding blade which can be set at some with respect to the stock.Rao I.Angular Measurements  Angle Measuring Devices: Bevel Protractors & Angle Gauges measure the angle between the surfaces of a part or assembly Bevel Protractor: It normally can read about 5 minutes of a degree.V.I.

T Delhi 15 .I.4/17/2013 Prof.V.Rao I.P.

3’.V. 30”. 6”. 30.T Delhi 16   . The set consists of 10. 18”. we could set an angle nearest to 3”. 9’. 27’ and 3”. The dimensions of the angle gauges are 75 mm length && 16 mm width.P.I. 4/17/2013 Prof. 90.Rao I.Angle Gauges  A series of fixed angles are used for comparative assessment of angle between two surfaces By making use of different permutations & combinations. 270 & 410 1’.

Rao I.P.V.Angular Gauges 4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 17 .I.

It is used in conjunction with other accessories such as slip gauges.Sine Bar  A sine bar is a high precision angle measuring instrument.V. 4/17/2013 Prof. It consists of a bar carrying two rollers set at a known centre distance. The options are 100 mm. 250 mm. etc.I.T Delhi 18   .Rao I. etc. angle gauges.P. They are available in several designs.

V.P.Sine Bar 4/17/2013 Prof.Rao I.T Delhi 19 .I.

4/17/2013 Prof.P.V.Sine Bar Contd.  Design Requirements are: ◦ The rollers must be of equal diameters and true geometric cylinders ◦ The distance between the roller axes must be precisely known and it should be same ◦ The upper surface of the bar must be flat ..T Delhi 20 . parallel with the roller axes and equidistant from each other ◦ The accuracy of the sine Bar depends on the above factors.Rao I.I.

V.Rao I.P.4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 21 .I.

Rao I. sine bar can not be used beyond 450  4/17/2013 Prof.I.V..dL/L  dq = (dh/h.T Delhi 22 .P. Sine bars can not be used for setting angles more than 450  Sin q = h/L (1)  Cos q dq = (L dh-hdL)/L2 (2)  dq / tan q = dh/h.dL/L) tan q  Hence.Sine Bar Contd.

T Delhi 23 .P.V.I.Rao I.Sine Centre 4/17/2013 Prof.

Autocollimator Autocollimators are used to detect small misalignments  If a parallel beam of light is projected from the collimating lens and if a plane reflector R is set up normal to the direction of the beam.V.Rao I.P. light will be reflected back along the same path and light will be brought back to focus exactly at the position of the light source  4/17/2013 Prof.I.T Delhi 24 .

4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 25 .Autocollimator contd.P.I.V.Rao I..

I. The image will not coincide but there will be a distance equal to focal length times the angle of reflection (2f q) where f is the focal length of the collimating lens. 4/17/2013 Prof.P.Rao I.  If the reflector is tilted through a small angle (q).Autocollimator contd.V.. the parallel beam will be reflected through twice the angle (2q) and would be brought to focus in the same plane as the light source but to one side of it.T Delhi 26 .

a long focal length is required  Although the distance of the reflector does not effect the reading.Rao I. if it is moved too far back.Autocollimator contd.  For high sensitivity.T Delhi 27 .I. The distance between the reflector and the lens has no effect on the separation between the source and the image.  4/17/2013 Prof.. reflected rays will miss the lens completely and no image will be formed.P.V.

can’t be used by the gear manufacturers.Types of Gear Inspection  Element by Element Inspection of Gear: Laborious.Rao I.P.I.T Delhi 28 . ◦ Tooth thickness measurement ◦ Base pitch measurement  Composite Error Checking: Used in Gear Inspection by conducting only one test  Parkinson Gear Tester 4/17/2013 Prof.V. useful in error analysis.

V.Gear Tooth Vernier 4/17/2013 Prof.P.T Delhi 29 .I.Rao I.

P.T Delhi 30 .Rao I.I.Base Pitch Measuring Instrument 4/17/2013 Prof.V.

Rao I.Involute Property 4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 31 .P.V.I.

Parkinson Gear Tester 4/17/2013 Prof.I.Rao I.P.V.T Delhi 32 .

I.Rao I.Thread Inspection Terminology Pitch: It is the distance measured parallel to the axis between the corresponding points on adjacent surfaces in the same axial plane.  4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 33 . Lead is equal to the same multiples of pitches as the number of starts.P.V.  Lead: It is the axial distance advanced by the thread in one revolution.

Thread Terminology Contd..

Included angle: It is the angle between the flanks of the thread measured in an axial plane. Pitch diameter: It is the diameter of tee imaginary coaxial cylinder which intersects the surface of the thread in such a manner that the intercept on the generator of the cylinder is equal to half the pitch.

4/17/2013

Prof.P.V.Rao

I.I.T Delhi

34

Thread Terminology Contd..
Major Diameter: It is the diameter of imaginary coaxial cylinder that just touches the crests  Minor Diameter: It is the diameter of imaginary coaxial cylinder that just touches the roots  Helix Angle (q): tan q = p/p d

4/17/2013 Prof.P.V.Rao I.I.T Delhi 35

Thread Inspection

Measurement of Major Diameter: Bench micrometer is normally used for this measurement. It has measuring anvils so that the thread can be held between them. It has fiducial indicator so that the required pressure can be applied for all the measurements
4/17/2013 Prof.P.V.Rao I.I.T Delhi 36

Bench Micrometer 4/17/2013 Prof.V.T Delhi 37 .Rao I.P.I.

So. 4/17/2013 Prof.P. Floating Carriage micrometer is normally used for this measurement.Thread Inspection  Measurement of Minor Diameter: Bench micrometer can not be used for Minor Diameter.Rao I.I.V.T Delhi 38  . In this instrument. another one. the thread is held between the centres so that the influence of helix angle can be nullified in this arrangement.

Rao I.4/17/2013 Prof.P.V.T Delhi 39 .I.

P.  4/17/2013 Prof.Rao I. Here. the prisms used in the measurement of minor diameter are replaced by the steel wires whose size is chosen such that they pitch at the effective diameter.V.T Delhi 40 .I.Thread Inspection  Measurement of Pitch (effective) Diameter: Again Floating Carriage micrometer is normally used for this measurement.

T Delhi 41 .Rao I.4/17/2013 Prof.I.P.V.

 Reading of the floating carriage micrometer is taken over these two wires so that the effective diameter can be calculated using the formula developed.Rao I. 4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 42 .V.P.Thread Inspection  Two wire Method: The two wires used should be identical in diameter and should pitch properly between the flanks.I.

Compression & Rake correction.Thread Inspection  Diameter of the best wires: If the wires used make contact exactly at the pitch diameter.Rao I. then such wire is called the best wire.  4/17/2013 Prof. The diameter of such wire can be estimated from the formula.I.P.T Delhi 43 .V.

This consists of glass screen with datum lines which can be rotated through 3600. The thread is mounted on centers and illuminated from below.Rao I.I.  The microscope is mounted above the thread in such a way it can be swiveled to be in line with the thread helix and avoid interference of the image  4/17/2013 Prof.V.T Delhi 44 .P.Thread Inspection Measurement of flank angle: Flank angle may be measured using Tool Maker’s Microscope with a goniometric head.

I.T Delhi 45 . 4/17/2013 Prof.P.Rao I.Thread Inspection  The datum lines in the microscope head are set to zero and the table is rotated until the crests of the thread coincide with the horizontal datum and the angle is measured.V.

T Delhi 46 . it aligns itself with the axis of the machine and measurement would be done along the helix of the thread as indicated above.P.  Measurement of Internal Threads 4/17/2013 Prof.Rao I.  When the thread is mounted on a comparator.I.Measurement of Major Diameter: The major diameter of internal thread is normally measured using horizontal comparator fitted with ball end styli of radius less than the root radius of the thread to be measured.V.

T Delhi 47 . Threads 4/17/2013 Prof.Measurement of Int.V.Rao I.P.I.

V.I.Rao I. 4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 48 .Measurement of Internal Threads  Measurement of Minor Diameter: Calibrated rollers and slip gauges are used for this measurement as shown below.P.

Rao I.  Measurement of Internal Threads 4/17/2013 Prof.Measurement of Effective Diameter: The effective diameter of internal thread is measured using the horizontal comparator using ball ended styli of the best size wire.I.V.  Measurement of Flank angle: The semi cast of the thread form may be made using dental plaster and measurement is obtained as done for external thread.T Delhi 49 .P.

T Delhi 50 .Rao I.Thread Gauges Thread inspection can also be carried out using gauges designed according to the Taylors Principles:  Limit gauges for Internal threads:  ◦ Full form Go Gauge ◦ Truncated Effective Diameter NOGO gauge ◦ Minor Diameter NOGO gauge 4/17/2013 Prof.P.I.V.

V.Go & NoGo Gauges 4/17/2013 Prof.P.I.T Delhi 51 .Rao I.

V.Rao I.I.Thread Gauges  Limit gauges for External threads: ◦ This is usually carried out using caliper type gauges ◦ Full form Go Gauge ◦ Truncated Effective Diameter NOGO gauge ◦ Major Diameter NOGO gauge 4/17/2013 Prof.T Delhi 52 .P.

T Delhi 53 .I.V.Limit gauges for External threads 4/17/2013 Prof.Rao I.P.

Rao I.P.V.T Delhi 54 .I.Limit gauge for Major Diameter 4/17/2013 Prof.

The maximum disturbance is called amplitude and the velocity of transmission is represented by frequency.P.V.Interferometry  Huygens theory proposes that light is considered as an electro-magnetic wave of sinusoidal form.T Delhi 55 .Rao I.I. 4/17/2013 Prof.

Rao I.Light wave 4/17/2013 Prof.V.I.T Delhi 56 .P.

 Interferometry is the branch of science which deals with the manner in which the monochromatic rays of light are combined by the lens system.I. usually the eye.V. Let us see the effect of combining two rays A & B which are of same wave length  4/17/2013 Prof.P.Rao I..Interferometry Contd.T Delhi 57 .

Interferometry Contd.I..T Delhi 58 .V.Rao I. 4/17/2013 Prof.P.

T Delhi 59  .P.V.Interferometry Contd.e. if the two rays of equal intensity are in phase.  When they happen to be in phase.Rao I. 4/17/2013 Prof. it results into the increased amplitude i.I. they augment each other and produce increased brightness.. the combined effect is zero if the amplitudes are equal which results in darkness. If they are out of phase i. the path differs by the half the wave length. This situation refers to the occurrence of interference.e.

T Delhi 60 .Rao I.P.I.Interferometry Contd.  Interference of two rays may be demonstrated by considering the two rays emanating from the same source and travelled different distances so as to create the required path differences as shown below: 4/17/2013 Prof.V..

4/17/2013 Prof.I.Interferometry Contd.P..V.T Delhi 61 .Rao I.

I.  Another simple method of obtaining fringes is by illuminating an optical flat over a plane reflecting surface.  An optical flat is a disc of glass or quartz whose faces are highly polished and within few microns 4/17/2013 Prof.V..T Delhi 62 .P.Interferometry Contd.Rao I.

T Delhi 63 .Interferometry Contd. interference fringes would be observed.Rao I.P.I.V.  Consider a case when an optical flat is kept on the surface of a workpiece. If the optical flat is illuminated by monochromatic light. it would not make an intimate contact but rests at some angle to the surface. Due to some reason..  4/17/2013 Prof.

Interferometry Contd.Rao I.I.P.T Delhi 64 .V.. 4/17/2013 Prof.

I.V.  Consider the two rays. then dark fringe is formed and again the dark fringe is formed when the path difference is 3 times half the wave length.Interferometry Contd. 4/17/2013 Prof.. If the path difference is half the wave length. one reflected from the bottom of the optical flat and other reflected from the top of the surface.Rao I.P.T Delhi 65 .

e.V.P.Interferometry Contd.  If the angle of inclination is small. l/2. ab=bc=l/4 and de=ef=3l/4  Change in separation between the optical flat and the surface is the difference between ab & de i.I.  4/17/2013 Prof..Rao I. The fringe pattern consists of alternate dark & bright straight bands in case of flat surface.  Total change in elevation from the point of contact to the outer fringe= n l/2.T Delhi 66 .

V.I. To distinguish between these two conditions..Interferometry Contd.  When the optical flat is kept on a spherically convex/ concave surface.P. the fringe pattern consists of concentric circles. it is convex.T Delhi 67 . optical flat is pressed at a point away from the centre and if the centre of the fringe pattern gets shifted.Rao I. 4/17/2013 Prof. then it is convex or if the fringe spacing reduces.

base plate.I. the surface under test.P.T Delhi 68 .NPL Flatness Interferometer The flatness of the surface under testing is measured by comparing it with an optical flat as discussed.  Mercury 198 is used as Mono-chromatic source of light. are shown below:  4/17/2013 Prof.  The system consisting of optical flat.Rao I.V. etc.

I.P.V.Rao I.T Delhi 69 .4/17/2013 Prof.

4/17/2013 Prof.V. This light is focused on to a pin hole giving an intense point source of light which is the focal plane of collimating . It consists of Mercury vapor lamp whose radiations are passed through a green filter giving a monochromatic light.P.lens.NPL Flatness Interferometer  The instrument was designed by National Physical Laboratory.T Delhi 70  .Rao I.I.

P.  It should be noted that the optical flat is mounted on an adjustable tripod.NPL Flatness Interferometer The parallel beam is directed on to the component to be tested via an optical flat so that interference fringes are formed which can be viewed directly above by means of thick glass plate semi-reflector set at 450 to the optical axis.V.Rao I.I.T Delhi 71 .  4/17/2013 Prof.

T Delhi 72 .V.  4/17/2013 Prof.  The interference fringes are formed due to the rays reflected from the underside of the optical flat and due to those reflected from the surface of the component.  The component to be tested is wrung on the surface plate.Rao I.I.P.NPL Flatness Interferometer This instrument can be used to test parallelism between the two surfaces of the components.

I. the optical flat being equally inclined to both the surfaces.V.Rao I. the fringe pattern from both the component & base plate are similar & equally spaced.T Delhi 73 .  4/17/2013 Prof.  If the component is flat and parallel.P.NPL Flatness Interferometer The fringes are also formed due to the rays reflected from the underside of the optical flat and due to those reflected from the surface of the base plate.

fringe pattern is straight.NPL Flatness Interferometer  When the component is flat but not parallel to the base plate. 4/17/2013 Prof. parallel but not equally spaced.I.V.Rao I.T Delhi 74 .P.