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A & P II Unit I

CHAPTER 10 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

Functions of the Endocrine System


Reproduction Growth & development Body defense Electrolyte, H2O & nutrient balance Regulate glandular secretion Metabolism & energy balance Circadian rhythm Contraction of smooth & cardiac muscle

ENDOCRINE GLANDS: Ductless: secrete hormones ___________ Target cells: Action site: http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=YI2qYRWz SZ4&feature=related

The Endocrine System

CHEMISTRY OF HORMONES
NonSteroidal: AMINES (i.e. epinephrine) PROTEINS (i.e. insulin) Steroids
Made from cholesterol (i.e. cortisol)

REGULATION OF HORMONES
Negative feedback mechanism
Releasing hormones Nervous system

THE PITUITARY GLAND

POSTERIOR PITUITARY
2 hormones:
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Oxytocin

Storage and release site!


Hormones are produced by the hypothalamus & stored in the posterior pituitary until needed

ANTERIOR PITUITARY
6 hormones
Growth hormone (GH) Thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Prolactin Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Hormones are produced here, but their release is regulated by releasing hormones (from the hypothalamus)

Function of Pituitary Hormones


Growth hormone: TSH:
Which then secretes thyroxine & T3

ACTH:
Which then secretes cortisol.

Prolactin: FSH and LH: influence the secretion of sex hormones and the development of egg or sperm.
CONTENTS

PINEAL GLAND

PINEAL GLAND
Secretion: Melatonin Functions:
Circadian cycle Levels rise when sunlight is absent; secretion inhibited by sunlight

THYROID GLAND

THYROID GLAND
3 Hormones: THYROXINE (T4) TRIIODOTHRONINE (T3) CALCITONIN ______is necessary for the production of these hormones

Functions of Thyroid Hormones


THYROXINE (T4): TRIIODOTHRONINE (T3): CALCITONIN:

PARATHYROID GLANDS

PARATHYROID HORMONE
Hormone produced: Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Functions:
Antagonist to calcitonin Raises _________ Lowers ____________

Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels


A normal blood calcium level is essential for what 3 functions? Parathyroid hormone
Increases osteoclast activity destroying Releases more calcium into blood
________blood calcium level

Also called Bone Resorption or Reabsorption

Calcitonin
Increases osteoblast activity building Removes calcium from blood
_________ blood calcium level

PANCREAS
ISLETS OF LANGERHANS Alpha Beta
HORMONES: Glucagon Insulin

Functions of Pancreatic Hormones


Insulin secreted _____________ ________ blood glucose level http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGL6km1 NBWE&feature=related Glucagon secreted _____________ ________ blood glucose level

ADRENAL GLANDS

ADRENAL MEDULLA
HORMONES SECRETED: Epinephrine Echo Function: Norepinephrine Function:

ADRENAL CORTEX
HORMONES SECRETED: Corticosteroids (steroid hormones) 3 types Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone Glucocorticoids Cortisol Gonadocorticoids Male hormones (androgens)

ADRENAL CORTEX
Functions of hormones secreted: Mineralocorticoids
Example: Aldosterone

Glucocorticoids
Example: Cortisol

Gonadocorticoids
Example: Male hormones (androgens)

OVARIES

OVARIES
HORMONES PRODUCED: Estrogen
Functions:

Progesterone
Functions:

TESTES
HORMONES PRODUCED: Testosterone Function:

Inhibin Function:

OTHER HORMONES
PLACENTA
hCG: human chorionic gonadotropin Estrogen, progesterone, relaxin

THYMUS
Produces hormones that help immune system

ADIPOSE TISSUE
Leptin

OTHER HORMONES
STOMACH
Ghrelin, gastrin Small instestine: secretin

HEART
ANH: atrial natriuretic hormone

KIDNEYS
Erythropoetin

PROSTAGLANDINS

AGING
No serious deficiency Decrease secretion with age Decrease gh Decrease thyroid