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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z7xKYNz 9AS0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyJx_UVE gQI&feature=related

Extends from mouth to anus, and consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon.
Where does digestion take place?

Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas

Enamel:
Dentin: Pulp cavity: Periodontal membrane: Crown: Root:

Made of: Nerves: Papillae Swallowing: Step 1: Step 2:

Salivary glands:
Salivary amylase: Lysozyme:

Food movement Reflex: _______________ Swallowing:


Pharynx constricts Breathing pauses Soft palate elevates to block nasopharynx Larynx elevates Epiglottis closes Esophagus starts peristalsis

Peristalsis LES (lower esophageal sphincter) or cardiac sphincter

Mucosa: Location: Function: Submucosa: Location: Function: External muscle layer: Location: Function: 2 layers:_____ & ______ Serosa: Location: Function:

Visceral Peritoneum Parietal Peritoneum Mesentery

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKP1qxpooo

Location: Structure: Function:

Cardiac orifice Fundus, Body, Pylorus Rugae External muscle layer Pyloric sphincter Chyme

Gastric pits Mucous cells Chief cells Parietal cells


G cells Histamine
Proton pumps

H2 receptors

Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Peyers patches Peristalsis Ampulla of Vater

http://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=xu5jDCX 2cHM

Digestive secretions: 3 sources Liver


Pancreas Duodenum
Secretin Bile

Villi vs. Microvilla Structure: Function: Villi: Capillary network Lacteal (lymph capillary)

Hepatocytes Liver lobules Hepatic duct Cystic duct Common bile duct Portal vein Hepatic vein http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=t at0QYxlCbo
Digestive function: Bile production

Bile Made by: Stored: Function: Composition:

Produces & excretes bile Glucose/Carbohydrate metabolism Amino acid metabolism


deanimation

Lipid metabolism Synthesis of plasma proteins Bilirubin formation Phagocytosis (Kupffer cells) Storage Detoxification
ETOH & meds Ammonia

2 functions:
1. 2.

When needed, contracts to propel bile to the duodenum

Exocrine Produces pancreatic juice made of:


1. Bicarbonate

Function:

2. Digestive enzymes

Pancreatic duct Common bile duct

Digestive enzymes: Protease (i.e.Trypsin) Amylase Lipase

Functions: Structure: Ileocecal valve Cecum Appendix Purpose: Ascending, Transverse, Descending Sigmoid Rectum, Anal canal, Anus

Normal Flora Haustra Goblet cells

Anal canal Anus Internal anal sphincter: ________muscle Relaxes as part of the defecation reflex External anal sphincter: _________muscle _________ control

Sense of taste Saliva Reduced secretions LES loss of muscle tone Sluggish peristalsis Gallstones, cholecystitis

TEMPERATURE & METABOLISM

Normal range - 96.5-99.5 f Average = 98.6 f Fluctuates 1 to 2 f in 24 hour period Lowest temp during sleep The very young and the very old

Thyroxine Epinephrine Active organ Food intake Fever

Skin
Others: Respiratory tract Urinary tract Digestive tract

Radiation Conduction Convection Vasoconstriction Vasodilation Sweating

Hypothalamus Mechanisms to increase heat loss Mechanisms to conserve heat

Temperature above 99.5 f


Hypothalamus Pyrogens

Purposes of fever: 1. 2.

Sum of all chemical reactions


Anabolism Catabolism

Cell respiration

C6H12O6 + O2 => CO2 + H2O + ATP + heat


GLUCOSE BREAKDOWN: 3 STAGES 1. Glycolysis

2. Krebs citric acid cycle


3. Cytochrome (electron) transport system

Location: Input : glucose & ATP investment No O2 needed yet Changes (1) glucose to (2) pyruvic acid Output: pyruvic acid, ATP, high energy electrons & H+ (carried by NADH), heat

If NO O2:

pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid

If O2:

pyruvic acid continues to the next stage, Krebs cycle

Location: Input: pyruvic acid & oxygen


Others: Converts each pyruvic

acid molecule into 3 carbon dioxide molecules (one carbon each)

Output: CO2, ATP, high energy electrons & H + (carried by NADH & FAD)

Location: Input: O2, electrons & H+ Also need: Transfers the energy that was released in the form of high energy electrons to ATP. Output: ATP, H20 Most of the ATP comes from this stage

Proteins: made of AMINO ACIDS


Extra amino acids DEAMINATED by liver, then converted into pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA, or ketones Goes directly into Krebs cycle

Fats: made of GLYCEROL & FATTY ACIDS


Can also be broken down by liver into pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA, or ketones Goes directly into Krebs cycle

KETONES & KETOSIS

calorie: Kilocalorie (Calorie with a capital C) 1 gram FAT = 9 KILOCALORIES 1 gram CARBOHYDRATES = 4 KILOCALORIES 1 gram PROTEIN = 4 KILOCALORIES

GLUCOSE
Used to build pentose sugars (DNA & RNA) Extra: Energy stores: Glycogen

PROTEINS: AMINO ACIDS Used to build amino acids not obtained in diet by liver Used by tissues to build proteins Hormones Antibodies Collagen Myosin & actin Clotting factors Many more!

FATS: FATTY ACIDS & GLYCEROL Used to make phospholipids cell membranes Used to make cholesterol: Cell membranes Steroids (ie. Cortisol,

estrogen) Bile salts

Extra: stored as fat in adipose tissue

Amount of heat production Contraction of muscles Contraction of heart muscle Breakdown of cellular components

The energy required for merely living


Energy at rest

Exercise Age Body configuration of adults Sex hormones Sympathetic stimulation Decreased food intake Climate

Metabolic rate decreases


Sensitivity to external temp changes