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S. Victor P. Selvakumar Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.
Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) Pro-Active Maintenance Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Maintenance Prevention
Condition Based Maintenance Equipment condition is assessed Periodic Assessment On-Line continuous assessment Maintenance based on assessment Maintenance based on criticality .
Switchyard Equipments Transformers/ Reactors Circuit Breakers Current Transformers Capacitive Voltage Transformers Surge Arresters Disconnectors .
Transformers Core Coil Solid Insulation Liquid Insulation Cooling System Bushings .
Expected Problems in Transformers Core/ Winding Movement Bad joints Wet Insulation Winding Insulation Deterioration Bushing Insulation Deterioration Deterioration of oil quality Blocked cooling system Partial Discharge and Over Heating .
Transformer Failure Statistics of Transformer Failure Statitcs POWERGRID Winding 19% Tap Changer 6% Shields and Leads 6% Bushing 69% .
Core/ Winding Movement Magnetic Balance Test Excitation Current Measurement Short Circuit Impedance Measurement Frequency Response Analysis .
Repeat test for each winding.Magnetic Balance Test • This test is conducted only in three phase transformers to identify imbalance in the magnetic circuit • After removing neutral from ground. apply single phase 230V across one of the winding and measure voltage in other two windings. Ensure V1 = V2+V3 Very negligible voltage induced to be investigated .
Core.Magnetizing current measurement To detect shifting of winding. failure of turn to turn insulation Apply 3 phase voltage on HV/IV terminal & measure current in each phase To be carried out before DC resistance measurement Voltage to be equal and Current for each set of measurement to be equal .
Interpretation Test results on the outside legs should be within 15% of each other Value for center leg should not be more than either outside For 1Phase transformer value should not be more than 10% variation. Not more than 5% on the previous reading .
winding resistance or C &Tan measurement Techniques available to detect such changes are FRA or Vibration Measurement .FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS (FRA) Mechanical movement of winding may occur during transportation shocks or Short Circuit forces or due to ageing and may result in dielectric failure of transformer Such winding displacement may not be detected by DGA.
The changes in the test object can be more clearly and consistently identified. .PRINCIPLE OF FRA Applied impulse signal and the corresponding winding responses are recorded using a high performance digitizer Results transformed into frequency domain by Fast Fourier Transform calculation A response function is obtained which is dependent almost entirely on the test object and is independent of applied signal and test circuit. The technique used for FRA analysis is a sweep frequency technique which is suitable for site use and has a superior signal to noise performance at high frequencies.
Tank earthed • The voltage transfer function T1/R1 is measured for each winding for five standard frequency scans from 5 Hz to 10 MHz .FRA TEST SET-UP • Sinusoidal signal output of approximately 2 V rms from the Frequency Response Analyser is applied • One measuring input (R1) is connected to the end of a winding and the other measuring input (T1) is connected to the other end of the winding.
SFRA Variation with Tap position Main winding responses unchanged Tap winding responses show stepwise variation .
FRA Interpretation .
FRA : Change in original signature AMPLITUDE 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 FREQUENCY AMP(dB) after failure AMP(db)before failure 213 kV LV Delta Winding .
FRA : Change in original signature .
it is nevertheless primarily a mechanical condition assessment test and must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests if a complete picture of the condition of the transformer is to be obtained. .Advantages of FRA FRA detects winding movement. which cannot be ascertained by any other commonly known test FRA test is sensitive and very repeatable FRA is very powerful and effective tool and capable of detecting a range of transformer faults.
Winding Resistance Measurement to detect bad joints Measured in the field in order to check for abnormalities due to loose connections. Interpretation of results is based on comparison with previous results Within 5% deviation in result is accepted Measured values to be converted to the reference temperature .
Winding Resistance Winding Resistance is very sensitive to temperature Hence temperature to be noted at the time of measurement Resistance is converted to base temperature for comparison R75 = Rm (75 + 235) ( Tm + 235) .
Wet Insulation Oil ppm Recovery Voltage Measurement Measurement of Relative Saturation Winding Capacitance tanδ measurement .
6 Liters .Typical Values of Water Content in Oil & Paper Water Content at the Time of Commissioning In Paper In oil 0.5% 20 ppm 150 Liters 1.5% 5 ppm 30 Liters 0.4 Liters After 25 years of service In Paper In Oil 2.
Dependency between the water content in mineral oil and cellulose paper .
RECOVERY VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT (RVM) .
Physics behind RVM Applying DC Voltage to the insulation. Opening the short circuit. The equivalent circuit which best describes the phenomenon of the polarization is serial R-C circuit. . molecules are polarized and turn in the direction of the Electric Field. a voltage due to remaining charge will build up between the terminals of the insulation. A short circuit is subsequently applied for a short period of time and molecules are partially depolarized. This is called Recovery Voltage.
RECOVERY VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT Test Setup .
Recovery Voltage Measurement .
Method of Measurement 2 kV DC is applied across the insulation for a particular time Insulation is shorted for half the time Then recovery voltage is measured till the maximum recovery voltage is reached Maximum recovery voltage against time is plotted .
RVM Graphs Different ages of Transformers .
Analysis of test result Multiple peaks indicate non-homogeneous dryness of winding More time constant indicates healthiness of insulation Less time constant indicates wetness of winding .
Before and after dry out .
ON-LINE MOISTURE MEASUREMENT .
ON-LINE MOISTURE MEASUREMENT THROUGH DOMINO DOMINO test is used to determine the moisture content of oil in Transformers and Reactors The sensor made of Thin Polymer film measures Capacitance The Capacitance changes proportional to the change in relative saturation of water in oil .
Relative Saturation (RS) is
RS = Wc * 100/S (%) Where Wc is concentration of water in oil & S is Solubility of water in oil that can be held at a given temperature
Solubility of water in oil (S) at a given temperature is computed from, logS = -1567/K + 7.0895 Where K is temperature in ºK
Moisture content Temp. Solubility of water in oil %RS
>100% (free water)
The instrument measures RS and ppm of water The output is locally displayed as well downloaded to PC through RS-232 port.
Water content in Oil and Condition of Paper insulation Water in Oil at 60-70ºC Condition of Cellulose insulation < 15ppm >15<20ppm >20<30ppm Good Fair Probably wet >30ppm Wet .
Deterioration of Winding Insulation Capacitance and tanδ Measurement .
Problems with the measurement Results are affected by external interference Interference suppression methods Non-Repeatability of test results Proper knowledge on connection and measurement Trend Analysis .
Basic Insulation .
Capacitance of Insulation .
Effect of Medium .
Dielectric Constants of different Mediums .
Equivalent Circuit .
HV Lead .
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR TWO WINDING TRANSFORMERS CHL – CAPACITANCE BETWEEN HV AND LV WINDINGS CH – CAPACITANCE BETWEEN HV AND TANK CL – CAPACITANCE BETWEEN LV AND TANK .
Precautions for Cap and Tan Delta Measurement Reliable instrument Jumpers to be disconnected for Transformer/ Reactor winding capacitance and Tan Delta measurement It should not be a rainy day Porcelain surface needs to be cleaned thoroughly .
Transformer Windings .
Shorting of Jumpers .
UST Mode of Measurement Earth will be connected to N Point Hence only CHL will be measured .
GST Mode of Measurement Here measurement is made for the Parallel combination of CH and CHL .
GSTg Mode of Measurement Here measurement is done for CHE as L is guarded .
Condition Monitoring of Bushings Construction of Bushings Grading of insulation C1 and C2 Tan delta measurement .
CT Insulation .
For C2: Apply 500 V between Test tap and Ground with HV Guarded on GSTg mode .C1 and C2 Tan delta measurement For C1: Apply 10kV between HV and test tap on UST mode.
Dissolved Gas Analysis .
SUMMERY OF VARIOUS INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUE FOR DGA DATA • Individual Fault Gases Acceptable Norms • Total Dissolved Combustible Gas (TDCG) limits • • IEC 60599 Method IEEE Standard C: 57.104/1995 Key Gas Method Ratio Methods Doernenberg Ratio Method Rogers Ratio Method • Trend Analysis .
KEY TO SUCCESSFUL DGA INTERPRETATION • • • • • WELL DOCUMENTED SAMPLING PROCEDURE BASED ON IEC 60567 EFFICIENT GAS EXTRACTION SYSTEM (WITH MORE THAN 98% OF GAS EXTRACTION) ACUURATE AND PRECISE GAS CHROMATOGRAPH WELL TRAINED MANPOWER TO CONDUCT THE TESTS DOCUMENTATION OF DGA DATA AND ITS INTERPRETATION .
POWERGRID PRACTICE SAMPLING FREQUENCIES BEFORE COMMISSIONING 24 HOURS AFTER 1ST CHARGING 15 DAYS AFTER 1ST CHARGING ONE MONTH AFTER 1ST CHARGING 3 MONTHS AFTER 1ST CHARGING THEREAFTER EVERY SIX MONTHS .
ARCING • THESE THREE CAUSES DIFFER MAINLY IN THE INTENSITY OF ENERGY DISSIPATION PER UNIT TIME PER UNIT VOLUME BY FAULT. CORONA OR PARTIAL DISCHARGE 2. • MOST SEVERE INTENSITY OF ENERGY DISSIPATION OCCURS WITH ARCING LESS WITH HEATING AND LEAST WITH CORONA .BASICS OF DGA ORIGIN OF FAULT GASES 1. PYROLYSIS OR THERMAL HEATING 3.
TEMPERATURES AT WHICH GASES EVOLVE > 1200 C > 1200 C > 1500 C > 7000 C METHANE (CH4) ETHANE (C2H6) ETHYLENE (C2H4) ACETYLENE (C2H2) .
CO CO2 3. HYDROCARBONS AND HYDROGEN METHANE CH4 ETHANE C2H6 ETHYLENE C2H4 ACETYLENE C2H2 HYDROGEN H2 CARBON OXIDES CARBON MONOXIDE CARBON DIAOXIDE NON-FAULT GASES NITROGEN 2.FAULT GASES CLASSIFIED IN 3 GROUPS 1. N2 OXYGEN 02 .
A) OIL CH4. C2H6 C2H4. PYROLYSIS LOW TEMP. ARCING H2.FAULT GASES Vs TYPE OF MATERIAL INVOLVED AND TYPE OF FAULT 1. CORONA A) OIL B) CELLULOSE H2 H2.H2(CH4. C2H4) . C2H6. CO. CO2 2. HIGH TEMP.C2H2) B) CELLULOSE CO2 (CO) CO (CO2) 3. C2H2 (CH4.
0% ETHYLENE 280.6% CARBON MONOXIDE 9.0% METHANE 30.0% ETHANE 280.0% (MOST SOLUBLE) .0% CARBONDIAOXIDE 120.0% ACETYLENE 400.0% (LEAST SOLUBLE) NITROGEN 8.0% OXYGEN 16.SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN TRANSFORMER OIL BY VOLUME HYDROGEN 7.
FURAN ANALYSIS .
Furan analysis in oil Monitoring of Cellulose (paper) insulation is important for in-service transformers to know the condition of paper Taking paper samples from charged transformer not practicable or rather impossible Furans are soluble by product which is produced due to ageing or cellulose decomposition/ overheating. Experimental tests have shown that DP of paper insulation is inversely proportional to FFA level and FFA level of 5 ppm corresponds to a DP of 250 which is reckoned to be the lower limit for insulation strength .
Furan analysis in oil The Furfuraldehyde in oil analysis is recognized as a very significant diagnostic test for paper condition assessment The FFA content of the oil from an aged equipment can be measured using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC). Another method is using Spectrophotometer The concentration of Furfuraldehyde in the oil and rate of generation of furfural can be used for assessing the condition and remaining life of the paper insulation in the transformer .
Blocked Cooling System Thermo scanning of Radiators Differential Temperature High oil and Winding Temperature .
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