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First things first…
• Brain and cranial nerves lab practical
– See questions 2 and 3 on study guide 5
The nervous system: What does it do?
• Sensory perception of stimuli • Integration • Motor output
– Muscles or glands
How is it organized?
• Central nervous system (CNS)
– Brain and spinal cord – Integrating/command center
• Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
– Nerves extending from brain/spinal cord • Links body parts to CNS – Spinal nerves: messages to and from spinal cord – Cranial nerves: messages to and from brain – Split into subdivisions
skeletal muscle.What are the PNS subdivisions? • Sensory (afferent) division – Information from sensory receptors to CNS – Somatic afferent fibers: from skin. joints – Visceral afferent fibers: from viscera • Motor (efferent) division – From CNS to effector organs. glands – Divided into two main parts . muscles.
What are the PNS motor subdivisions? • Somatic (voluntary) nervous system • Autonomic (involuntary) nervous system – CNS to skeletal muscles – CNS regulates smooth muscles – Two subdivisions • Sympathetic nervous system: fight or flight • Parasympathetic nervous system: feed or breed .
What types of cells are found in the nervous system? • Neurons: excitable cells • Neuroglia: supporting cells (AKA glial cells) – Ten times more common than neurons – Four in CNS – Two in PNS .
What glial cells are in the CNS? • Astrocytes: most abundant – – – – Support/brace neurons exchange with capillaries guide migrating young neurons Clean up K+. neurotransmitters • Microglia: functions as clean-up – Substitute for immune system .
What glial cells are in the CNS? • Ependymal cells: – Line central cavities of brain. spinal cord – Form permeable barrier for CSF – Produce CSF • Oligodendrocytes: – Form myelin sheaths .
What glial cells are in the PNS? • Satellite cells: surround neuron somas – Function unknown • Schwann cells: form myelin sheaths – Essential for PNS nerve cell regeneration .
Why do PNS neurons regenerate? • Myelin sheaths form regeneration tube – Direct new axon into place – CNS neurons don’t regenerate .
high metabolic rate • Bundles of arm-like processes – Tracts in CNS – Nerves in PNS .What about neurons? • Long-living • Amitotic – Except olfactory and hippocampus (memory) neurons • V.
What are a neuron’s parts? • Cell parts – Soma: all organelles but centrioles • Nissle bodies (rough ER) • Nuclei = cluster of cell bodies in skull/cord • Ganglia = cluster of cell bodies in PNS .
axonal terminals • Axoplasm • Axolemma .What are a neuron’s parts? – Dendrites – Axon • Axon hillock • Axon collaterals (rare. right angle) • Terminal branches • Synaptic knob.
Myelin sheaths .
What are myelin sheaths? • Protein-lipid filled cytoplasm of Schwann cells – Neurilemma: outermost part w/nucleus and cytoplasm – Myelin sheath: inner layers of PM • Protects/insulates axon (never dendrites) – Allow for rapid transmission of action potential .
What are myelin sheaths? • Nodes of Ranvier: gaps between adjacent Schwann cells • Oligodendrocyte s serve same purpose in CNS – White matter: areas of myelinated (primary fiber tracts) – Gray matter: nerve cell bodies (unmyelinated) .
olfactory mucosa – Unipolar • One process. some no axon – Bipolar neurons • Retina. divides into proximal and distal branches (both are considered axons) .What kinds of neurons are there? • Classify by function or structure • Structure – Multipolar neurons • Most common (99%) • Three or more processes • Many dendrites.
internal organs • Usually unipolar. 99% of all your neurons .What kinds of neurons are there? • Function – Sensory (afferent) neurons • Conduct toward CNS from skin. multipolar • Cell bodies in CNS – Interneurons (association neurons) • Between sensory and motor neurons. soma located outside CNS • More on sensory receptors in special senses lecture – Motor (efferent) neurons • Conduct away from CNS. multipolar • Usually entirely in CNS.
Nerve physiology: Action potentials .
What does it mean when a neuron “fires”? • Firing = excitability = action potential = nerve impulse – High K+ in. high Na+ out – Cell is polarized – Cell overall neg. charge inside due to molecules like proteins. RNA. DNA • Charge measured in millivolts • Potential = difference in charge across PM • Current = flow of charge (ions) from one point to another • Recall resting potential of all cells .
ACh ion gate • Voltage-gated: open/close in response to change in potential .g.What lets ions move across the PM? • Membrane ion channels (proteins) – Passive (leakage): always open – Active (gated): usually either opened or closed depending on type of gate • Chemically-gated: ligand-gated – E.
but not Na+ permeable • Creates membrane potential • K+ leave cell but Na+ can’t enter – Result: overall neg.What causes resting potential in the first place? • Membrane permeability – K+ permeable. charge inside cell – Na+/K+ pump maintains but does not create resting potential • Always a lot of K+ leaking out and a little Na+ leaking in .
and outside of cell – i. -70 mV to -90 mV – Inhibitory event .e cells becomes less negative (-70 mV to -50 mV) – Cell can also temporarily become positive – Excitatory event • Hyperpolarization – Cell becomes more negative than normal – e.What is depolarization? • Reduction in membrane potential – Less difference between in.g.
local changes in membrane potential • Can depolarize or hyperpolarize cell • Ligand-regulated • Graded = magnitude varies w/strength of stimulus – Stronger stimulus = greater voltage change. longer travel of current – Caused when ion gates open due to stimulus .What are local potentials? • Short-lived.
Threshold reached (-55 mV) . Sodium ions arrive at axon hillock • Depolarizes membrane 2.What happens during an action potential? • Follow on graph 1.
Propagation of signal . Voltage-regulated Na+ (fast) gates open • Slow voltage• regulated K+ gates also open Depolarization begins 4.What happens during an action potential? 3.
K+ gates are finally fully open .repolarization begins at K+ flows out – How is this different from resting potential? .fully depolarized 6.What happens during an action potential? 5. At voltage peak.voltage peaks around 35 mV . Na+ gates close (inactivate) above 0 mV .
blackwellpublishing. K+ gates closer more slowly than Na+ gates .html .overshoot = hyperpolarization http://www.co m/matthews/channel.result: more K+ out than Na+ in .What happens during an action potential? 7.
What happens after an action potential? • Refractory period: few millisecs – Time during which can’t stimulate neuron a second time – Happens until recovery of resting potential • Two stages – Absolute refractory period • No new action potential possible – Relative refractory period • Can trigger new action potential if stimulus is very strong .
How do action potentials travel down the axon? • Nerve signal = traveling wave of excitation produced by action potentials • Unmyelinated sheaths – Slower transmission – Action potential must open all gates between hillock and synaptic knob • Called continuous conduction .
blackwellpu blishing.html .com/matthews /actionp.How do action potentials travel down the axon? • Myelinated sheaths – Many times faster transmission – Action potential skips from one node of Ranvier to the next • Called saltatory conduction • http://www.
What else influences speed of action potential? • Axon diameter – The larger the diameter. the faster the speed of transmission – Less resistance to current flow with larger diameter Faster transduction Slower transduction .
problems controlling muscles • Ultimately paralysis – Immune system attacks myelin sheaths and nerve fibers • Scar tissue (scleroses) replaces some damaged cells • Other now unmyelinated axons sprout Na+ channels – Accounts for sporadic nature of disease? .What happens if myelination is lost? • Multiple sclerosis – Autoimmune disease – Usually young adults – Blindness.
What happens when the nerve signal reaches the synaptic knob? • First some terminology – Synapse: junction between two neurons • Use neurotransmitters – Allows for integration/evaluation of information – Presynaptic neuron • Can synapse with next neurons dendrites. soma or axon – Postsynaptic neuron – Synaptic cleft .
aspartate. GABA. glutamate. dopamine. glycine. NE. histamine • Excitatory or inhibitory . serotonin.What are neurotransmitters? • Chemicals which cross synaptic cleft – Communicate with postsynaptic neuron • Over 100 known neurotransmitters – ACh.
How do other neurotransmitters work? • ACh and some others are ionotropic – Alters membrane potential • Rest are metabotropic – Use secondary messenger (e.g. cyclic AMP) to alter postsynaptic cell metabolism – Neurotransmitter activates cAMP production – For example… .
Also: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/neurotrans.html .
AChE) – http://www.swf .g.wnet.org/closetohome/animation/coca-anim2-main.arizona.microvet. then detaches… • If no new neurotransmitter available.paxil.html • Reuptake – Cocaine » http://www.How does a nerve signal stop? • Neurotransmitters usually bind for only about 1 msec – Then detaches. stimulus stops – This can happen one of three ways • Diffusion • Destruction (e.com/flash/depression. then reattaches.html – SSRIs » http://www.edu/Courses/MIC420/lecture_notes/clostridia/clostridia_neur otox/movie/botulinum_movie.
How do SSRIs work? .
charge • Glutamate. aspartate – Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) • Increases neg.How do neurons integrate multiple signals? • Like a democracy: count the votes! • Mechanisms neurons use to process. NE can be either EPSPs or IPSPs . store and retrieve information • Postsynaptic potentials – Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) • Na+ flows in an cancels some of neg. GABA – ACh. charge • Neurotransmitter opens Clgates into cell • Glycine.
How do neurons integrate multiple signals? • Summation: adding up postsynaptic potentials – Sum determines if fire or not – Need about 30 EPSPs to reach threshold • Temporal summation: new EPSPs arrive before decay of previous EPSP – Summation exceeds threshold • Spatial summation: several different synapses all emit EPSPs – Enough Na+ enters to reach threshold .
What are neuronal circuits? • Pathways among neurons • Diverging circuits – Large scale muscle contraction • Converging circuits – Good for incoming sensory information to converge in one part of brain • Reverberating circuit – Promotes inhalation (when reverberation stops. you exhale) • Parallel after-charge circuit – Seeing light bulb image after closing eyes .
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