# Antenna Theory

MMG Rashed Assistant Professor, Dept. of ETE Daffodil International University

What is Antenna?

Antennas are metallic structures designed for radiating and receiving electromagnetic energy. An antenna acts as a transitional structure between the guiding device (e.g. waveguide,transmission line) and the free space.

A conducting wire radiates mainly because of time-varying current or acceleration or deceleration of charge takes place in it. If there is no motion of charges in a wire, no radiation takes place, since no flow of current occurs.

the space surrounding an antenna can be divided into three regions. .Near and Far Field Regions  The field patterns. change with distance and are associated with two types of energy: radiating energy and reactive energy. Hence. associated with an antenna.

Near and Far Field Regions .

Near and Far Field Regions .

Near and Far Field Regions .

Certain critical parameters are discussed below.Antenna Performance Parameters The performance of an antenna can be gauged from a number of parameters.  .

More specifically it is a plot of the power radiated from an antenna per unit .Radiation Pattern  The radiation pattern of an antenna is a plot of the far-field radiation properties of an antenna as a function of the spatial coordinates which are specified by the elevation angle θ and the azimuth angle φ .

Let us consider the case of an isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna is one which radiates equally in all directions.Radiation Pattern solid angle which is nothing but the radiation intensity [5]. so that the power density S at this distance in any direction is given as: . then the power is spread over a sphere of radius r . If the total power radiated by the isotropic antenna is P .

Directivity .

Input Impedance .

Antenna Efficiency .

Antenna Gain .

Polarization .

.Bandwidth  The bandwidth of an antenna is defined by [5] as “the range of usable frequencies within which the performance of the antenna.

Bandwidth .

Bandwidth .

but a tradeoff exists in the performance and hence the half wavelength dipole is widely used. .TYPES OF ANTENA 1 . Dipoles can be shorter or longer than half the wavelength.Half Wave Dipole    The length of this antenna is equal to half of its wavelength as the name itself suggests.

. but opposite in direction. due to canceling effects. where the two currents in the conductors are of sinusoidal distribution and equal in amplitude.  The dipole antenna is fed by a two wire transmission line. no radiation occurs from the transmission line. Hence.

  The currents in the arms of the dipole are in the same direction and they produce Radiation in the horizontal direction. Thus. the dipole radiates in the . for a vertical orientation.

10 shows the radiation pattern for the half wave dipole. The typical gain of the dipole is 2dB and it has a bandwidth of about 10%.15dB) with a radiation resistance of 73 Ω [4]. The half power beam width is about 78 degrees in the E plane and its directivity is 1.64 (2.  Horizontal direction. Figure 2. .

Radiation Pattern of Dipole Antenna .

As the dipole's electrical length changes.Calculating the length of Dipole Antenna The length of a dipole can be approximately determined from the following formula: L = 468/f Where: L= is the length in feet and f =is the frequency in MHz. its radiation pattern changes. .

. the input impedance is resistive and extremely high. For antennas that are an even number of half wavelengths long. When the antenna is approximately an odd multiple of a half wavelength long.000 ohms. between 1000 and 50.Impedence of Dipole Antenna   The input impedance of a dipole antenna also depends on its electrical length. the input impedance is resistive and lies between 50 and 200 ohms.

Change of Impedence with the height from the ground  The chart below shows the effect of ground on the input impedance of a dipole. .

Change of Impedence with the height from the ground   As a horizontal antenna is brought closer to the surface of the earth.As the antenna is brought closer. its input resistance decreases at first . . the input resistance will rise again . Over a good conductor such as sea water. the input resistance drops steadily as the antenna is lowered. reaching a value of zero when the antenna touches the water's surface.

. A diagram of the folded dipole is shown below.Folded Dipole Antenna  There is a variation of the l/2 dipole known as the folded dipole that is often used for FM and TV reception.

.Folded Dipole Antenna  The folded dipole is the same overall length as the l/2 dipole. and separated from it by approximately l/400. but has a second conductor connected to the first only at the ends.

. which is important for proper TV reception. The folded dipole also has a larger bandwidth than the regular dipole.Folded Dipole Antenna    The input impedance of the folded dipole is approximately 300 ohms Provides perfect match to TV twin lead and to the input of the TV set.

Polarization  Polarization is the orientation of the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave produced by the antenna. For most antennas. Polarization may be vertical. the orientation of the antenna conductor determines the polarization. horizontal or elliptical. .

 . If the electric field rotates in space. it is said to be obliquely polarized. it is elliptically polarized. If the radio wave's electric field vector points in some other direction. such that its tip follows an elliptical path.Polarization  The diagram above shows vertical and horizontal polarization.

. then the combination of the element and its image acts identically to a dipole of length L except that the radiation occurs only in the space above the plane.Monopole Antenna/Vertical Antenna  If a conducting plane is placed below a single element of length L / 2 carrying a current.

12. The typical gain for the quarter wavelength monopole is 2-6dB and it has a bandwidth of about 10%.16dB) [4].28 (5. a half wave dipole can be approximated by a quarter wave monopole ( L / 2 = λ / 4 ). the directivity is doubled and the radiation resistance is halved when compared to the dipole.5 Ω and its directivity is 3. The monopole is very useful in mobile antennas where the conducting plane can be the car body or the handset case. Its radiation resistance is 36. The radiation pattern for the monopole is shown below in Figure2.Monopole Antenna   For this type of antenna.Figure 2.12 Radiation pattern for the Monopole Antenna . Thus.

Diagram of Monopole Antenna .

If the total loop circumference is very small as compared to the wavelength ( L <<< λ ). There are two types of loop antennas-electrically small loop antennas and electrically large loop antennas. then the loop antenna is said to be electrically small.Loop Antennas    Aa conductor bent into the shape of a closed curve such as a circle or square with a gap in the conductor to form the terminals as shown in Figure 2. . An electrically large loop antenna typically has its circumference close to a wavelength.13.

This helps in increasing the radiation resistance. When the perimeter or circumference of the loop antenna is close to a wavelength. then the antenna is said to be a large loop antenna.Loop Antennas   The performance of the loop antenna can be increased by filling the core with ferrite. .

Loop Antennas .

the polarization is horizontal. . The polarization is determined by the location of the feed point as shown below. If the feed point is in a vertical side of the loop. If the feed point is in a horizontal side of the loop. the polarization is vertical.Radiation Types from Loop    It is possible to create either horizontally or vertically polarized radiation with a large loop antenna.

Loop Antenna .

Antenna Arrays   Definition: An antenna array is an antenna that is composed of more than one conductor. There are two types of antenna arrays: Why Array Antennas? The signals from the antennas are combined or processed in order to achieve improved performance over that of a single antenna. .

Why Array Antennas The antenna array can be used to:  Increase the overall gain.  Cancel out interference from a particular set of directions.  Determine the direction of arrival of the incoming signals  Maximize the Signal to Interference Plus Noise Ratio (SINR) .  To make the antenna most sensitive in a particular direction.  Provide diversity reception.

.Types of Array Antennas Driven arrays: all elements in the antenna are fed RF from the transmitter Parasitic arrays: only one element is connected to the transmitter. The other elements are coupled to the driven element through the electric field and magnetic fields that exist in the near field region of the driven element .

The four most common types are:  Collinear array  Broadside array  Log Periodic Array  Yagi-Uda Array .Example of Array Antenna There are many types of driven arrays.

Its input impedance and gain remain more or less constant over its operating bandwidth. The chief advantage of an LPDA is that it is frequencyindependent. which can be very large .LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY  They were used for years as TV antennas.

The radiation in the opposite direction is typically 15 . only 2 or 3 are active at any given frequency in the operating range. The electromagnetic fields produced by these active elements add up to produce a unidirectional radiation pattern.20 dB below the maximum . in which maximum radiation is off the small end of the array.LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY   Although an LPDA contains a large number of dipole elements.

The other elements absorb some of the electromagnetic energy radiated by the driver and re-radiate it.YAGI-UDA ARRAY (YAGI)    Yagi has only a single element that is connected to the transmitter. called the driver or driven element. The fields of the driver and the remaining elements sum up to produce a unidirectional pattern. The diagram below shows the layout of elements in a typical Yagi. . The remaining elements are coupled to the driven element through its electromagnetic field .

YAGI-UDA ARRAY (YAGI)

Behind the driven element is a single element that is approximately 5% longer. This is the reflector. It prevents radiation off the back of the array. In front of the director are a series of elements that are shorter than the driven element. These are the directors. They help focus the radiation in the forward direction. Together the reflector and directors can reduce the radiation off the back of the antenna to 25 - 30 dB below the forward radiation. As more directors are added, the forward gain increases.

Designing a YAGI-UDA Antenna

To get insight into the basic operation of theYagis, we will examine one with only three elements: a reflector, driver, and director.

. The plots in the next page show the radiation pattern of the Yagi in two perpendicular planes.Designing a YAGI-UDA Antenna   The reflector is 5% longer than the driver. The spacing is the same between all three elements. and the director is 5% shorter.

Designing a YAGI-UDA Antenna .

This is true in general for Yagis. regardless of the number of directors used. as more directors are added. However. the forward gain will increase.Designing a YAGI-UDA Antenna  The radiation pattern is unidirectional. and the beam width will become narrower in both planes. .

. Only 1 reflector is necessary to reduce rearward radiation.Designing a YAGI-UDA Antenna  what would happen if additional reflectors are added? The answer is that nothing happens. The first reflector reduces the power radiated rearward to approximately 1% of the forward value. The additional directors cannot couple strongly to the driver because the radiated field passing by them is so small.

.Cell-tower Antenna Array These Antenna Arrays are typically used in groups of 3 (2 receive antennas and 1 transmit antenna).

The antenna can operate in number of modes. then the helical antenna is said to be operating in the axial mode.Helical Antennas     A helical antenna or helix is one in which a conductor connected to a ground plane. However. . is wound into a helical shape. When the helix diameter is very small as compared to the wavelength. then the antenna operates in the normal mode. when the circumference of the helix is of the order of a wavelength. Two principal modes are the normal mode (broadside radiation) and the axial mode (end fire radiation).

Helical Antennas .

Figure 2. the beam becomes narrower as the number of turns on the helix is increased.78:1) as compared to the normal mode of operation. the antenna radiates as an end fire radiator with a single beam along the helix axis.Helical Antennas  In the axial mode of operation. Due to its broadband nature of operation. . the antenna in the axial mode is used mainly for satellite communications.16 above shows the radiation patterns for the normal mode as well as the axial mode of operations. For this mode of operation. This mode provides better gain (upto 15dB) [4] and high bandwidth ratio (1.

Horn Antennas    Horn antennas are used typically in the microwave region (gigahertz range) where waveguides are the standard feed method. . since horn antennas essentially consist of a waveguide whose end walls are flared outwards to form a megaphone like structure.

. and are easy to construct.Horn Antennas  Horns provide high gain. low weight. low VSWR. The three basic types of horn antennas that utilize a rectangular geometry are shown in Figure 2. relatively wide bandwidth. rectangular horns are widely used.17. circular or elliptical. The aperture of the horn can be rectangular. However.

. For dominant waveguide mode excitation. the E-plane is vertical and H-plane horizontal.Horn Antennas  These horns are fed by a rectangular waveguide which have a broad horizontal wall as shown in the figure.

Azimuth  In plane surveying. a horizontal angle measured clockwise from north meridian to the direction of an object or fixed point.  .

and the local horizontal plane. directly towards the satellite.Elevation  Elevation refers to the angle between the dish pointing direction. . It is the up-down angle.