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RESPIRATION :

Introduction

By
Dr.M.Anthony David, MD.
Professor of Physiology

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RESPIRATION: BASICS
 A process involving:
• Taking up of Oxygen from the air.
• Utilizing the Oxygen in the tissues.
• Removal of the Carbon dioxide formed.
O2
Tis sue s: Remo val
Us e of O 2 Of CO 2

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RESPIRATION
 INTERNAL RESPIRATION:
• Tissue or Cell level Respiration.
• Oxygen is utilized by tissues for the
metabolism of organic molecules.

OXY GEN CA RBO N DIO XIDE

TISSUES

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EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
 Inspiration: The process of taking
in of air (Oxygen) from the external
environment.
 Expiration: Giving out of air
(Carbon dioxide) from the body to
the external environment.
 Exchange of gases between the
body and the external environment.
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RESPIRATION :: THE PROCESS

PULMONARY
VENTILATION

ALVEOLAR
O2 VENTILATION
GASEOUS
EXCHANGE CO2

LEFT RIGHT
HEART HEART

PURE BLOOD IMPURE BLOOD

TISSUE RESPIRATION
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NON RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS OF
LUNGS
 I. DEFENCE & PROTECTION:
1. Warms & humidifies the air.
2. Dust particles are trapped by the Bronchial
secretions.
3. The Ciliary Escalator removes trapped matter
by expectoration(Cough)
4. Secretory Ig.A provides Immunity against
airborne microbes.
5. Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages(PAMs)
engulf foreign bodies by Phagocytosis.

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NON RESPIRATORY
FUNCTIONS OF LUNGS
II. METABOLISM & OTHER
FUNCTIONS:
1. Regulation of blood pH.
2. Synthesis of proteins, Fats &
Carbohydrates.
3. Fibrinolysis & removal of blood clots.
4. Phonation or Speech.

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NON RESPIRATORY
FUNCTIONS OF LUNGS
5. Removal of vasoactive local
hormones.(Bradykinin, PGE, E2 etc.)
6. ACE(from Pul Capillary endothelium)
converts Angiotensin I into Angiotensin
II.
7. Destruction of Thrombocytes.
8. Maintaining Body Water balance
9. Thermoregulation.

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The air we
breathe!
Composition of
Atmospheric, Alveolar &
Expired Air

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DEFINITIONS
 ATMO SPHE RIC AI R : A ir a t t he
norma l se a le ve l.
 ALVE OL AR AIR : T he inspi red a ir
which ha s reache d the a lveo li .
(Bef ore the exc ha nge of g ases )
 EXPI RE D AIR : T he a ir w hich is
exhal ed a fter t he e xcha nge proc ess.

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ATMOSPHERE
 The a ir that en ve lop es the
Pl an et e ar th.
 The a ir that we no rma ll y li ve in .

 Has a p ressu re o f 1 Atmo sphere

or 76 0mm o f Hg .

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DIFFUSION
 A pro ce ss by which g ase s fr ee ly
mo ve a mo ng th emsel ve s.
 The e nerg y ne ede d fo r t his is

pro vided b y t he kine tic mo tio n o f


th e mo le cules.
 All t he molecul es a re constan tly

in mo tio n e xce pt a t a bsolu te


ze ro tempera tu re.
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NET DIFFUSION
 It o cc urs f ro m one p art to anot her of
a c ha mber i f the co ncentrat io n of
the g as i s varyi ng.
 It o cc urs f ro m a n a re a of hig her to
an a rea o f l ower co ncentrat io n.

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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PARTIAL PRESSURES
 The pre ssu re i n g as is dire ct ly
propo rtio nal to the conce ntra tio n of
the g as m ol ec ules.
 The pre ssu re c au sed by a pa rti cu lar
gas in a mi xtu re of g ase s is ca lled
it’ s Pa rti al Pres su re.
 Exa mpl e: A ir: 79 % Ni trog en & 21 %
Oxyg en. So P N 2 i s 6 00mmH g & P O 2 is
16 0mmH g. NOMAD:RESPIPHYS: Intro 16
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FACTORS DETERMINING
PARTIAL PRESSURES
 HENRY’ S L AW:

• PART IAL PRES SURE:


= Co ncentr ati on o f dissol ved gas
Solubil ity Coe ffi cient
• Sol ub ility C oe ffi cient s:
 Carb ond io xide: 0.57
 Oxyg en : 0.02 4
 CO : 0.0 18
 Ni tr ogen : 0.012
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Partial Pressures of Oxygen &
Carbon dioxide
 Ca rbo n dioxi de i s 20 t im es as
sol uble as Oxyg en.
 There fore t he P artial P ress ure o f
Ca rbo n dioxi de( For a g iven
Conc entra ti on) i s l ess t han one-
twe ntie th tha t o f Oxyg en.
 Wat er va por a lso h as a Pa rti al
pre ssu re in hu midi fie d a ir a s i n the
re spi rato ry pas sa ges.
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NET DIFFUSION: FACTORS
1. P res su re D iff erenc e de note d by Δ P .
2. So lu bil ity of the ga s in t he l iqu id
( S ).
3. T he cro ss s ect io nal area of t he
liqu id ( A ).
4. T he di st anc e thr oug h w hich the g as
mus t di ffu se .( d )
5. T he m ol ec ula r w ei ght of t he
gas(MW ) NOMAD:RESPIPHYS: Intro 20
DIFFUSION RATE &
COEFFICIENT
 D f or D if fusi on:
D ∝ ΔP X A X S
d X √MW
 Dif fusi on Coef fici ent = S/√MW

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RE LAT IVE DIF FUSIO N
COE FFI CIE NTS
 Oxyg en : : 1 .0
 Carbo n d ioxi de : : 20.3
 CO : : 0 .81
 Ni trog en : : 0 .53
 Helium : : 0 .95

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PARTIAL PRESSURES AT SEA LEVEL(In
mm Hg.)
At mosp heric Humid Alveolar Expire d
Air Air Air Air

N2 597.0 563.4 569 .0 566 .0


78.6% 74.1 % 74.9% 74.5%
O2 159 .0 149.3 104 .0 120 .0
20.84 % 19.67% 13.6% 15.7%
CO 2 0.3 0. 3 40.0 27.0
0.04% 0.04 % 5.3% 3.6%
H 2O 3.7 47.0 47.0 47.0
0.50% 6.2% 6.2% 6.2%
Total 760 .0 760.0 760 .0 760 .0
100% 100 % Intro
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ATM.AIR ≠ ALV. AIR. WHY?
 Humidification of
air dilutes it.
 Only 350 ml of
new air is
brought in by
inhalation
 It enters the
Functional
Residual
Capacity of 2.2
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FOR LISTENING
&
UNDERSTANDIN
G,
THANK YOU ALL!

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