RESPIRATION : Introduction

By Dr.M.Anthony David, MD. Professor of Physiology

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RESPIRATION: BASICS

A process involving:
• Taking up of Oxygen from the air. • Utilizing the Oxygen in the tissues. • Removal of the Carbon dioxide formed. O2
Tis sue s: Us e of O 2 Remo val Of CO 2

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RESPIRATION

INTERNAL RESPIRATION:
• Tissue or Cell level Respiration. • Oxygen is utilized by tissues for the metabolism of organic molecules.
OXY GEN CA RBO N DIO XIDE

TISSUES
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EXTERNAL RESPIRATION

Inspiration: The process of taking in of air (Oxygen) from the external environment. Expiration: Giving out of air (Carbon dioxide) from the body to the external environment. Exchange of gases between the body and the external environment.
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RESPIRATION :: THE PROCESS
PULMONARY VENTILATION O2 CO2 LEFT HEART PURE BLOOD RIGHT HEART IMPURE BLOOD TISSUE RESPIRATION
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GASEOUS EXCHANGE

ALVEOLAR VENTILATION

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NON RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS OF LUNGS

I. DEFENCE & PROTECTION:

1. 2.

Warms & humidifies the air. Dust particles are trapped by the Bronchial secretions. 3. The Ciliary Escalator removes trapped matter by expectoration(Cough) 4. Secretory Ig.A provides Immunity against airborne microbes. 5. Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages(PAMs) engulf foreign bodies by Phagocytosis.

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II. METABOLISM & OTHER FUNCTIONS:

NON RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS OF LUNGS

1. Regulation of blood pH. 2. Synthesis of proteins, Fats & Carbohydrates. 3. Fibrinolysis & removal of blood clots. 4. Phonation or Speech.

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NON RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS OF LUNGS
5. Removal of vasoactive local hormones.(Bradykinin, PGE, E2 etc.) 6. ACE(from Pul Capillary endothelium) converts Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II. 7. Destruction of Thrombocytes. 8. Maintaining Body Water balance 9. Thermoregulation.
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The air we breathe!

Composition of Atmospheric, Alveolar & Expired Air
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DEFINITIONS
 

ATMO SPHE RIC AI R : A ir a t t he norma l se a le ve l. ALVE OL AR AIR : T he inspi red a ir which ha s reache d the a lveo li . (Bef ore the exc ha nge of g ases ) EXPI RE D AIR : T he a ir w hich is exhal ed a fter t he e xcha nge proc ess.
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ATMOSPHERE
The a ir that en ve lop es the Pl an et e ar th.  The a ir that we no rma ll y li ve in .  Has a p ressu re o f 1 Atmo sphere or 76 0mm o f Hg .

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DIFFUSION
A pro ce ss by which g ase s fr ee ly mo ve a mo ng th emsel ve s.  The e nerg y ne ede d fo r t his is pro vided b y t he kine tic mo tio n o f th e mo le cules.  All t he molecul es a re constan tly in mo tio n e xce pt a t a bsolu te ze ro tempera tu re.

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NET DIFFUSION
 

It o cc urs f ro m one p art to anot her of a c ha mber i f the co ncentrat io n of the g as i s varyi ng. It o cc urs f ro m a n a re a of hig her to an a rea o f l ower co ncentrat io n.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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PARTIAL PRESSURES

The pre ssu re i n g as is dire ct ly propo rtio nal to the conce ntra tio n of the g as m ol ec ules. The pre ssu re c au sed by a pa rti cu lar gas in a mi xtu re of g ase s is ca lled it’ s Pa rti al Pres su re. Exa mpl e: A ir: 79 % Ni trog en & 21 % Oxyg en. So P N 2 i s 6 00mmH g & P O 2 is 16 0mmH g.
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FACTORS DETERMINING PARTIAL PRESSURES

HENRY’ S L AW:
• PART IAL PRES SURE: = Co ncentr ati on o f dissol ved gas Solubil ity Coe ffi cient • Sol ub ility C oe ffi cient s:
Carb ond io xide: 0.57  Oxyg en : 0.02 4  CO : 0.0 18  Ni tr ogen : 0.012

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Partial Pressures of Oxygen & Carbon dioxide

Ca rbo n dioxi de i s 20 t im es as sol uble as Oxyg en. There fore t he P artial P ress ure o f Ca rbo n dioxi de( For a g iven Conc entra ti on) i s l ess t han onetwe ntie th tha t o f Oxyg en. Wat er va por a lso h as a Pa rti al pre ssu re in hu midi fie d a ir a s i n the re spi rato ry pas sa ges.
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NET DIFFUSION: FACTORS
1. P res su re D iff erenc e de note d by Δ P . 2. So lu bil ity of the ga s in t he l iqu id ( S ). 3. T he cro ss s ect io nal area of t he liqu id ( A ). 4. T he di st anc e thr oug h w hich the g as mus t di ffu se .( d ) 5. T he m ol ec ula r w ei ght of t he gas(MW )
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DIFFUSION RATE & COEFFICIENT

D f or D if fusi on: D ∝ ΔP X A X S d X √MW Dif fusi on Coef fici ent = S/√MW

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RE LAT IVE DIF FUSIO N COE FFI CIE NTS
Oxyg en : :  Carbo n d ioxi de :  CO  Ni trog en : :  Helium

1 .0 : 20.3 : : 0 .81 0 .53 : : 0 .95

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PARTIAL PRESSURES AT SEA LEVEL(In mm Hg.)
At mosp heric Air Humid Air Alveolar Air Expire d Air

N2 O2 CO 2 H 2O Total

597.0 78.6% 159 .0 20.84 % 0.3 0.04% 3.7 0.50% 760 .0 100%

563.4 74.1 % 149.3 19.67% 0. 3 0.04 % 47.0 6.2% 760.0 NOMAD:RESPIPHYS: Intro 100 %

569 .0 74.9% 104 .0 13.6% 40.0 5.3% 47.0 6.2% 760 .0 100%

566 .0 74.5% 120 .0 15.7% 27.0 3.6% 47.0 6.2% 760 .0 100% 24

ATM.AIR ≠ ALV. AIR. WHY?

Humidification of air dilutes it. Only 350 ml of new air is brought in by inhalation It enters the Functional Residual Capacity of 2.2 Ltrs.

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FOR LISTENING & UNDERSTANDIN G, THANK YOU ALL!

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