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Biological Thermodynamics : Energy Transformations

What is Energy ?

What is Energy ?
Physics the capacity of a physical system to do work. # a biological resource used to control the environment # the ability to do work

Unit : joule, J

Scalar

Form of Energy

Solar energy

Nuclear energy

Electric energy

Renewable Energy
Biodisel Bioetanol Biosolar Biomass Solar energy etc.

Primary Source of the Energy


Some organisms acquaire this energy directly Plant and cyanobacteria blue green algae

Some organisms obtain it inderectly Human and animal

Indirectly Obtain Sun Energy


Note : Only 1% of suns energy that penetrate ozone layer

Definition of Agriculture in wide meaning

Pertanian adalah : Pemanenan Energi Surya

Energy Captured by Plant


Plant combine :

hc
Harvested energy from sunlight CO2 H2O

E h
h = plank constant 6.63 x 10-34 J s

C6H12O6 Solar Energy

O2

Heat

v = wavelength of light
c = speed of light 2,998 x 108 m s-1

Chemical Energy

Sequence of energy using


Digestion Manufacture the biological macromolecules

Maintain cell
Maintaining body heat Generating light (fireflies) Fighting off infection Growth Reproduction and so on

Animal feed on plants

Energy

Two of the several Requirements for life, as we know it can be inferred from energy transformations : 1. Mechanisms to control energy flow 2. Mechanisms for the storage and transmission of biological information.

a deeper sense of the nature of energy flow in biology


.a small organic compound. . This molecule synthesized from photonic energy and chemical energy in animal ..........important as a molecular currency of intracellular of energy transfer..

What is it ????
Click to continue

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)


ATP was discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann
a multifunctional nucleotide

"molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer proposed to be the main energytransfer molecule in the cell by Fritz Albert Lipmann in 1941 ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism

Helicase
Helicase
Using energy from ATP hydrolysis

This energy used to breakdown hydrogen bond

Helicase Movie (1.39 min)

ATP Hydrolysis
ATP hydrolysis is the reaction by which chemical energy that has been stored and transported in the high-energy phosphoanhydridic bonds in ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is released. The product is ADP (Adenosine diphosphate), anorganic phosphate, orthophosphate (Pi) and release energy
Synthesis of cellular molecules Cellular movement Generation of an electrical potential across membrane Heat Synthesis of membranes

Production of ATP
In Plant, ATP is synthesized in thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis in a process called photophosphorylation

In Eukaryotic Cell, ATP is produced in Mitochondria. The process helps by ATP Synthase

Energy Distributions in Cells


Kinetic Energy Heat or thermal energy power of molecular motion. At 25 oC about 0.5 kcal mol-1 Radiant energy energy of photons in photosynthesis. About 40 kJ mol-1. Electrical Energy energy of moving particles, electron in reactions involving electron transfer.

Potential Energy Bond energy energy of covalent and non-covalent. Ion-ion interactions : 14 kcal mol-1 dispersion interactions : 0.01 kcal mol-1 Chemical energy energy of difference in concentration across a permeable barrier. Electrical energy energy of charge separation, for example the electric field across the two lipid bilayer membranes surrounding a mitochondrion (about 20 kJ mol-1

Conservation of Energy
Energy is neither created nor destroyed

This refer to : Total Energy The Total Energy is always constant

First Law of Thermodynamics

System, Boundary and Surrounding


System : A region of the universe set apart from the remainder of the cosmos for special study. Surroundings : Regions immediately outside of and contiguous to the system under study. Boundary : Partitions that separate the system from its surroundings.

System
Consist of : Solvent, water, buffer salts, enzyme molecule, the substrate recognized by enzyme, the product of enzyme reaction, and other chemical dissolved.

Two Type : a. Close system b. Open system

Open and Close System


Close system :
No matter is exchanged between system and surrounding

Open system :
Matter can be exchanged between system and surrounding

Open System in Living Organisms


Solid food circulatory system delivers to all cell of the body Oxygen respiratory system burn the fuel it obtain from food Excretion + heat throwing (output) system Energy input is higher than the output increase in body weight

Heat
oxidation (burning) of wood gives off heat

Heat or thermal energy is a form of kinetic energy, energy arising from motion.

Heat is the change in energy of system that results from its temperature differing from that of the surroundings

Heat release upon oxidation

Energy Expenditure in Human

First Law of Thermodynamics


The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy principle to heat and thermodynamic processes

The change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system

First Law of Thermodynamics


In chemistry :

U Q W
W is defined as the work done on the system instead of work done by the system Biological Thermodynamics In the context of chemical reactions and process, it may be more common to deal with situations where work is done on the system rather than by it.

Carbon, Energy & Life


The elemental compsition of dry mass of the adult human body is roughly : - 3/5 carbon - 1/10 nitrogen - 1/10 oxygen - 1/20 hydrogen - 1/20 calcium - 1/40 phosphorus - 1/100 potassium - 1/100 sulfur - 1/100 chlorine - 1/100 sodium

Carbon is the biggest contributor to the weight of body Is there any energetic explanation of this ?

N-N bonds = 160 kJ/mol O-O bonds = 140 kJ/mol C-C bonds = 345 kJ/mol support the life !!!

For your next session please


Prepare knowledge about internal energy, enthalpy, 2nd Law and Entropy.. ..Thank you for your attention.

Reference
wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn www.sciencebyjones.com/physics_definitions. htm