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Motivation as a Psychological Force

Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs.

Model of the Motivation Process

Types of Needs
Innate Needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives

Acquired Needs
Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs

The sought-after results of motivated behavior Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals

How Does this Ad Appeal to Ones Goals?

It Appeals to Several Physical Appearance-related goals.

The Selection of Goals

The goals selected by an individual depend on their:
Personal experiences Physical capacity Prevailing cultural norms and values Goals accessibility in the physical and social environment

Discussion Questions
What are three generic goals you have set for yourself in the past year? What are three product-specific goals you have set in the past year? In what situations are these two related? How were these goals selected? Was it personal experiences, physical capacity, or prevailing cultural norms and values?

Bloggers Motivation
Construct Blogging for selfexpressing Blogging for life documenting Items I use my blog to free my mind when I am moody. I express myself by writing in my blog. My blog is the place where I express what I feel. I use my blog as my diary to document my life. By writing text and posting video/audio files, I keep a record of my life.

Blogging for commenting

Im willing to comment on what other bloggers say. Id like to respond to other blogs that I read (no matter if I know of the blogger or not). Id like to receive peoples comments on what I post on my blog. Blogging helps me to make more like-minded friends. In my blogroll I have friends with whom I can share things. By blogging I interact with a set of blogs that have contents similar to what I put in my blog.
Blogging helps me extract information behind events that interest me. Blogging helps me explore more information about products and/or services. To me it is convenient to search for information by blogging.

Blogging for forum participating

Blogging for information seeking

Rational versus Emotional Motives

Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria, such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria


Discussion Questions
What products might be purchased using rational and emotional motives? What marketing strategies are effective when there are combined motives?

The Dynamics of Motivation

Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves


Substitute Goals
Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need The substitute goal will dispel tension Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time


Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego.

Defense Mechanisms

In response to frustration, individuals may resort to aggressive behavior in attempting to protect their self-esteem. The tennis pro who slams his tennis racket to the ground when disappointed with his game or the baseball player who physically intimidates an umpire for his call are examples of such conduct. So are consumer boycotts of companies or stores.

Rationalization People sometimes resolve frustration by inventing plausible reasons for being unable to attain their goals (e.g., not having enough time to practice) or deciding that the goal is not really worth pursuing (e.g., how important is it to achieve a high bowling score?). Regression An individual may react to a frustrating situation with childish or immature behavior. A shopper attending a bargain sale, for example, may fight over merchandise and even rip a garment that another shopper will not relinquish rather than allow the other person to have it. Frustration may be resolved by simply withdrawing from the situation. For instance, a person who has difficulty achieving officer status in an organization may decide he can use his time more constructively in other activities and simply quit that organization.


Arousal of Motives
Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal


How Does This Ad Arouse Ones Needs?


The Ad Is Designed to Arouse Ones Yearning for an Adventurous Vacation by Appealing to the Sense of Touch


Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?


Both Physiological and Social Needs


To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?


Egoistic Needs


To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?




Discussion Questions
What are three types of products related to more then one level of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs? For each type of product, consider two brands. How do marketers attempt to differentiate their product from the competition?


A Trio of Needs
individuals desire to control environment

need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging

need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs

To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?


The Affiliation Needs Of Young, Environmentally Concerned Adults


To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?


Affiliation Need


Power And Achievement Needs