LUNG VOLUMES, CAPACITIES & MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION

By Dr.M.Anthony David, MD. Professor of Physiology
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SPIROMETRY
 

TID AL VOL UME (TV) : T he vol ume of air br eathed i n or o ut i n norma l q uiet bre at hing. = 500 ml. INSPI RAT ORY RE SE RVE VO LUME (IRV ) : T he vo lu me o f a ir whi ch i s bre at hed in d uri ng f orce d i nspira tio n: “A dee p bre at h”.= 3 L ts EXPI RAT ORY RE SER VE VO LUM E(ERV ) : T he vo lu me o f a ir brea thed ou t by forc ed expi rat io n. = 1. 1 L ts
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SPIROMETRY

RESIDUAL VOLUME (RV): The volume of air that remains in the lungs after forceful expiration.= 1.2 Lts FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY (FRC): The air left in the lungs after a quiet expiration. = 2.3 Lts

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HUTCHISON’S SPIROMETER

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LUNG CAPACITIES

Vital Capacity: =IRV + TV + ERV = 4.8 lts. (Males); 3.1lts (Females) Total Lung Capacity: TLC = VC + RV = IC + FRC Lung Capacities are the sums of two or more lung volumes.
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TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY

The total volume of air in the lungs after a deep inspiration. TLC = VC + RV = IC + FRC

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VITAL CAPACITY

The volume of air that can be breathed out by maximum expiration after a maximum inspiration. It can be measured by a Spirometer. VITAL INDEX (VI) : VI = Vital Capacity Body Surface Area
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VITAL CAPACITY

USES:
• Diagnosis & Prognosis of Lung diseases. • Evaluation of Physical fitness.

FACTORS AFFECTING VITAL CAPACITY:
• • • • • Age. Sex: More in Males than in Females. Body Size: Height Posture: Standing: Better VC Training: Increases VC
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VITAL CAPACITY: APPLIED ASPECTS

Vital Capacity is decreased in pathological conditions such as:
• Bronchial Asthma. • Pleural Effusion. • Fibrosis.

It is also decreased in Pregnancy due to increased Intra abdominal pressure.
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TIMED VITAL CAPACITY: FEV1

 

Timed Vital Capacity is also called as Forced Expiratory Volume in the First second. FEV 1 Like in Vital Capacity, the subject inspires deeply and then breathes out maximally but as quickly as possible. FEV1 is normally 80% It is decreased in Obstructive lung diseases like Bronchial Asthma.
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FEV 1

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THE CHEST & PLEURA

Ch est:
1. T ho racic Cag e:
     

Ribs. Verte br ae . Ste rnum. Musc les. Ligament s. Dia ph ragm

• This bony cag e can both ex pan d and col lap se as it is e last ic
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THE CHEST & PLEURA

Ches t:
2. L un gs:
Ai r sacs – a lveo li.  Parenchyma  Trache o-b ro nc hial tree.

• Lun gs ar e al so elasti c. • Th ey can on ly col lap se .
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THE CHEST & PLEURA
3. P le ural Ca vity:
• A pote nti al sp ace . • Has ver y l itt le flui d. • Is boun d b y Par iet al & Vi scer al Pl eur a. • Th ese tw o l ay er s sti ck t oge th er d ue to Capill ar y Acti on .

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INTRA PLEURAL PRESSURE
 

Is always Negative: -ve Because the cavity is pulled:
• Towards inside by the lungs • And towards outside by the bony thorax.

Intrapleural pressure is also some times called Intrathoracic pressure.

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INTRA PULMONARY PRESSURE
 

Also called Intra Alveolar Pressure. Is exactly same as the Atmospheric Pressure. Because the alveoli are directly connected to the atmosphere. This is negative in inspiration as the lungs draw in atm.air. It becomes positive during expiration.
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TRANSPULMONARY PRESSURE

 

The di fferenc e bet we en Intrapu lmona ry P res su re and Intra pl eu ra l pre ss ure . TPP = IP P – I ntra pl eu ra l P re ssu re . TPP = 0 – (-1 1)
• = 11cms of H 2 O

The T ra ns P ul mo nary P ressu re i s the di ste nding pres su re w hich helps to pre vent a irway co lla pse .
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MECHANICS OF BREATHING
  

The process of Inspiration is active. It needs muscular contraction. The chief muscle of inspiration is the Diaphragm. The Diaphragm is a sheet of muscle with a central tendon. It separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
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DIAPHRAGM: CHIEF MUSCLE OF INSPIRATION

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INSPIRATORY MUSCLES
2. External Intercostal Muscle:  Located between the ribs.  Directed inferiorly and medially.  Contraction causes two types of movements: •Bucket Handle movement. •Pump Handle movement.
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BUCKET HANDLE MOVEMENT
Outward & Upward movement in the middle:  Increases the transverse diameter of the chest

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PUMP HANDLE MOVEMENT

The anterior, downward sloping ends are raised & sternum is pushed up. The anteroposterior diameter is increased.

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DYSPNEA

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EXPIRATION
 

Expi rat io n is a passi ve proc ess d uri ng qu ie t bre at hing . Mu sc les a re u se d o nly f or f orc ed expira ti on. T hey a re:
• Inte rnal i nte rcostal m usc les:

Lo cated at Rt ang les to EI Muscl es , have oppo site actio n. Increase Int ra ab domina l p res sure & p us h the d iap hrag m up .
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• An ter ior Ab domin al muscl es :

NORMAL RESPIRATORY MECHANISM

INSPIRATION
• • • • • • • Active. Increased AP, Transverse & Vertical Diameters Increased Volume. Decreased Pressure LUNGS EXPAND IPP Decreases Air rushes in.

EXPIRATION
• • • • • • Passive Inspiratory muscles relax Thorax & Lungs come to resting phase. LUNGS COMPRESSED Increased IPP. Air flows out of the thorax.
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Hope you all have understood what I taught today!

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