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Research and experimental development is formal work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications

According to Goddard & Melville (2004), answering unanswered questions or exploring which currently not exist is a research. the advanced learners dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redmen & Mory (2009), define research as a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.

Importance OF RESEARCH
To discover new facts.

To verify and test important facts

To analyze an event or process or phenomenon to Identify the cause and eect relationship

To develop new scientic tools, concepts and

theories to solve and understand scientic and nonscientic problems

To nd solutions to scientic, non-scientic and

social problems To overcome or solve the problems occurring in our every day life.

Importance of Research
Research is important both in scientic and nonscientic elds. In our life new problems, events, phenomena and processes occur every day. Practically implementable solutions and suggestions are required for tackling new problems that arise. Scientists have to undertake research on them and nd their causes, solutions, explanations and applications. Precisely, research assists us to understand nature and natural phenomena.

Some important avenues for research are: (1) A research problem refers to a diculty which a researcher or a scientic community or an industry or a government organization or a society experiences. It may be a theoretical or a practical situation. It calls for a thorough understanding and possible solution. (2) Research on existing theories and concepts help us identify the range and applications of them. (3) It is the fountain of knowledge and provide guidelines for solving problems. (4) Research provides basis for many government policies. For example, research on the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet the needs helps a government to prepare a budget. (5) It is important in industry and business for higher gain and productivity and to improve the quality of products.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: The process of creating knowledge using empirical observations and logical analysis according to the conventions of the scientific community. The scientific method includes at least 5 stages:

The scientific method includes at least 5 stages:

Observe or have a question about some aspect of the

world. Propose a tentative statement, called a hypothesis, that is consistent with your observation or question. Make predictions based on the logical implications of the hypothesis. Test those predictions with further observations and analysis and modify the hypothesis in the light of your results. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no unsatisfactory discrepancies between hypothesis and observation.

A set of logically consistent ideas about the relationships between empirical phenomena (i.e., concepts) that permits those ideas to be tested using observations.

HYPOTHESIS A conditional statement that is logically consistent with a theory and can be tested with observations.

OBSERVATION The process of gathering empirical data to analyze toward the goal of testing hypotheses.
EMPIRICAL GENERALIZATION The process of making claims based on empirical data observed in a particular context about the relationships between concepts in a broader set of contexts.

The process of contributing and reconciling a study's findings on a particular subject to the accumulated understandings of that subject in scientific scholarship.


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