Uni t 4 Spor ts Her os

•Names of the Sports:
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skiing baseball basketball golf cycling boxing tennis table tennis/ ping-pong soccer/ football American football snooker/ pool/ billiards scuba diving/ snorkeling mountain/ rock climbing hiking

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aerobics weightlifting badminton volleyball gymnastics cricket ice hockey sumo wrestling athletics bowling surfing skydiving roller skating ice skating

Chapter 1 Who Invented That Sport? Paragraph 1: Many sports are associated with specific countries. Baseball is considered ‘America’s pastime,’ and Scotland is known as the ‘home of golf.’ These countries, like others, developed their own national sports and eventually shared their hobbies with the rest of the world.
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invent (v.)-to make, design, or think of a new type of thing; create sport (n.)-a physical activity in which people compete against each other; game associate (v.)- to make a connection in your mind between one thing or person be associated with somebody/something - to be related to something pastime (n.)-something that you do because you think it is enjoyable or interesting; hobby eventually (adv.)-finally; in the end Meaning— Paragraph 1 introduces the concepts of national and international sports and gives some examples.

Paragraph 2: Many theories exist about how baseball extended into Latin America from the north in the nineteenth century. Some believe the marines took it to Nicaragua; others say that oil workers went to Mexico, or sailors brought it to Cuba. However it happened, the region developed a great interest in the game and exported it further to neighboring countries such as Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Panama. Thanks to missionaries, teachers, television, and more recently, U.S. professional players, the game reached Asian countries, and is now played in national leagues in Japan and Korea.  theory (n.)-an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something, especially an idea that has not yet been proved to be true  extend (v.)-to make something bigger or longer, such as time, distance, size etc.  the marines (n.)-a type of soldier; one part of a country’s military forces  The Central America consist of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.  missionaries (n.)-people who travel to another place, or country, to teach people about their religion  league (n.)-a group of sports teams or players Meaning— Paragraph 2 examines the various theories of how baseball was introduced outside the United States.

Paragraph 3: It is believed that golf originated in Scotland. As early as the 1400s, pebbles were knocked into rabbit holes using a stick or club. In 1744, the first set of golfing rules and regulations was created in Edinburgh. In the nearby town of St. Andrews, the Society of St. Andrews Golfers was formed, which later became known as the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. Today, St. Andrews Links is one of the most famous courses in the world.  originate (v.)- to come from a particular place or start in a particular situation originate from/ originate in/ originate with  pebble (n.)-a small smooth stone  knock (v.)-to hit something with a short quick action so that it moves or falls; knock something out of/from something; knock something aside; (knock someone to the ground; knock someone unconscious)  club (n.)-golf club; a long thin metal stick used in golf to hit the ball  Society (n.)- an organization or club with members who share similar interests, aims  the links (n.)-a piece of ground near the sea where golf is played; golf links  course (n.)-an area of land designed for playing golf; a 18-hole course Meaning— Paragraph 3 describes the early origins and development of golf in Scotland.

Paragraph 4: In 1888, a Scotsman named John Ried established the St. Andrews Golf Club in New York. In 1895, the United States Golf Association was formed, and by 1901 there were more than 1,000 golf courses in the U.S. Around this time, golfers from Scotland and England were invited to the U.S. to teach the sport to enthusiastic Americans. Since then, the U.S. has produced some of the world’s leading golfers, and the sport now has fans worldwide.
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establish (v.)-found; set up; build up golfer (n.)-golf player produce (v.)-to cause a particular result or effect; to make leading (a)- best, most important, or most successful fan (n.)-someone who likes a particular sport Meaning— Paragraph 4 gives the background of golf’s introduction and development in the United States.

Paragraph 5: Skiing became popular worldwide in the early twentieth century. Although the oldest known ski was found in Sweden, it is believed that the people of Norway developed skiing into a sport in the early 1700s. After ski lifts were invented in the 1930s, skiing spread to other countries in Europe and became a popular winter pastime.
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ski (n.)-one of a pair of long thin narrow pieces of wood or plastic that you fasten to your boots and use for moving on snow or on water ski lifts (n.)- machines with chairs used to carry people to the top of a mountain so they can ski down; cable car Meaning— Paragraph 5 explains the origins of alpine skiing and its growth into international sport.

Paragraph 6: Not all counties have been as successful at exporting their national pastimes, however. Japan, for example, has never managed to attract as much interest from the rest of the world in sumo wrestling. Nevertheless, for many countries, having a sport to call their own remains a source of great national pride.
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manage to do something- to succeed in doing something difficult, especially after trying very hard nevertheless (adv.)-however; nonetheless Meaning— Paragraph 6 identifies one sport that hasn’t caught on worldwide and points out the importance of national sports.