Introduction to Solar System 6

IESO

Introduction to Solar System Part 6

18-Apr-13

Comets, Meteors, and Asteroids

2

Structure of a Comet
Ion Tail

Dust Tail

Coma To Sun
3

Comet Structure

Nucleus

10 km “Dirty Snowball”

Coma

Cloud of evaporated ices and ions may be 100,000 km in diameter Always points away from Sun

Tail

Solar Wind and Radiation Pressure

4

The Oort Cloud

In 1950 Jan Oort noticed that

no comet has been observed with an orbit that indicates that it came from interstellar space, there is a strong tendency for aphelia of long period comet orbits to lie at a distance of about 50,000 AU, and there is no preferential direction from which comets come.

5

The Oort Cloud

6

Comet Halley

7

Bayeaux Tapestry Norman Invasion of 1066

8

Comet Halley 1910
•Pope Callixtus III excommunicated Halley's Comet in 1456
•In 1910, charlatans sold "comet pills" Orbit

9

Comet Nucleus

10

Comet of 1577

11

Hyakutake

12

Hale-Bopp

13

Comet West

14

The Cause of Meteor Showers

P55/Tempel-Tuttle

15

Why After Midnight is Best

Midnight

Rotational Velocity

Orbital Velocity
16

Shower Radiant

17

The 1833 storm
18

The 1966 storm

19

1997 Leonids from Orbit

20

Two Showers for Halley

21

Sporadic Meteors

Irons

Stony-Irons

Chondrites

Carbonaceous Chondrite

Achondrite
22

Barringer’s Crater

An iron meteorite 100 feet across and 70,000 tons slamed into the Earth at about 43,000mph in the Arizona desert near Flagstaff 40,000 years ago. Barringer Crater is 4,100 feet wide and 571 feet deep.
23

Other Impact Craters

24

Tunguska, 1908

25

How Much Damage?

26

Asteroids
Apollo

Trojans

27

Ida - Dactyl

28

Gaspra

29

Kirkwood Gaps

30

Asteroids Elsewhere

31

32

Sedna

33

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