# IESO

Observational Astronomy Part 6

19-Apr-13

Light (Electromagnetic Spectrum) and Telescopes
[week 2 and 3]

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A Telescope is a tool used to gather light from objects in the universe

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Our Objective

   

OBJECTIVES

Treat the telescopes as an instrument
Learn telescope parameters What makes a telescope useful? Telescope operation Different telescope types

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There are two different types of telescopes

A refracting telescope uses a glass lens to concentrate incoming light A reflecting telescope uses mirrors to concentrate incoming starlight

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Telescope Optics

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The Refractor
Objective (lens) eyepiece • Common as small telescopes

• \$\$\$ in large apertures
• Superb image quality

2.4” Amateur Refractor

40” Refractor

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The Newtonian Reflector

6” Amateur Newtonian • Common as amateur telescopes • Lower cost

• Simple optical design
• Good image quality • Central obstruction
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The Cassegrain Reflector

• Large f-number in small package • F/10 in a 24” long tube • Good imagery for large f/# • Design used in large telescopes
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The Schmidt Cassegrain
Corrector plate Spherical primary mirror

8” Schmidt Cassegrain

• Large f-number in small package

• F/10 in a 24” long tube
• Good imagery for large f/# • Better spherical aberration control
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Chromatic Aberration The Problem

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Chromatic Aberration The Solution

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Spherical Aberration

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Spherical Aberration

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A ____________ telescope uses a lens to concentrate incoming light

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Reflecting telescopes use mirrors to concentrate incoming starlight

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a Telescope

Most important!!

Light Gathering Power: bigger aperture is better making objects appear brighter

followed by  Resolving Power: to see fine detail

 2 LGP  Area  d 4

and least important,  Magnifying Power: magnification = M

RP(in arcsec) =

 (nm)
d (mm)

 .2516

wavelength (nm) diameter (mm)

fo M fe

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SENSITIVITY
HOW MUCH LIGHT CAN THE TELESCOPE GATHER DEPENDS ON THE

-APERTURESIZE OF THE MIRROR OR LENS

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Light Gathering Power “The Power of a Telescope”

eye

Eye behind telescope

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Telescope Resolving Power

Star

Double Star

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DIFFRACTION

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RESOLUTION AND THE AIRY DISC

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RESOLUTION

 = 4.56 / D  is the separation in arc seconds D is the diameter of lens/mirror in inches

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A larger objective lens provides a brighter (not bigger) image
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Magnification
Magnification = Telescope focal length ÷ eyepiece focal length 2000 mm ÷ 76 mm = 78 X 2000 mm ÷ 10 mm = 200 X

2000 mm ÷ 1 mm = 2000X

Maximum useful magnification: - 60X per 1” of aperture Practical magnification depends on - Optics and seeing
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The Job of a Telescope
See faint objects - Light gathering power

See detail on objects - Resolving power

Magnify otherwise small objects - Magnification

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Reflecting telescopes use mirrors to concentrate incoming starlight

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See One-Minute Astronomer worksheet and notes below previous slide.

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If you pass white light through a prism, it separates into its component colors.
long wavelengths R O Y G B I V short wavelengths

spectrum
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But visible light is only one type of electromagnetic radiation (light) emitted by stars

Astronomers are truly interested in the entire spectrum of Light!
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Consider This Class as Seen in Different Wavelengths of Light!

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Consider Orion as Seen in Different Wavelengths of Light!

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Observations at other wavelengths are revealing previously invisible sights

UV

infrared

Ordinary visible

Map of Orion region

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Hubble Space Telescope Views of Orion Nebula showing stars hidden in clouds
http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/97/13/A.html
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TODAY’S Sun as seen in visible light from Earth and from space in X-rays by satellites

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Radio wavelength observations are possible from Earth’s surface

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The Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico

One such array is called the Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA): it consists of ten radio telescopes which reach all the way from Hawaii to Puerto Rico: nearly a third of the way around the world! By putting a radio telescope in orbit around the Earth, radio astronomers 40 could make images as if they had a radio telescope the size of the entire planet!

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Why do some stars, sky objects appear to twinkle?

Differences in the temperature and density of small portions of Earth’s atmosphere cause passing starlight to quickly change direction, making stars appear to twinkle.

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Earth’s atmosphere hinders astronomical research
Image of stars taken with a telescope on the Earth’s surface Same picture taken with Hubble Space Telescope high above Earth’s blurring atmosphere

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High above Earth’s atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope provides stunning details about the universe

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Hubble orbits the Earth at an altitude of about 353 miles and in 97 minutes.

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But visible light is only one type of electromagnetic radiation (light) emitted by stars

Astronomers are truly interested in the entire spectrum of Light!
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Astronomers use different instruments to look at light of different wavelengths - sometimes, we even have to go above Earth’s atmosphere.

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Not all EM radiation can penetrate Earth’s atmosphere.

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Which is the correct reasoning for why a gamma ray telescope located in Antarctica that is to be used to look for evidence of black holes in the centers of galaxies would not get funded?
A.
B.
There is no way to detect the presence of a black hole. Gamma rays are too energetic to detect with a telescope. You can’t build a functioning telescope in Antarctica. Gamma rays don’t penetrate Earth’s atmosphere.

C.
D.

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Imagine you’re the head of a funding agency that has a very tight budget for building a telescope. Which of the three proposed telescopes below would be best to support?
A. B. C. D.
A gamma ray telescope in Antarctica A radio telescope in orbit above the Earth A visible telescope located high on a mountain in Peru An ultraviolet telescope located in the Mojave desert

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Poor Seeing: Aberration introduced by the Atmosphere

Ideal

Aberrated

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ACTIVE OPTICS

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ADAPTIVE OPTICS - CORRECTS ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS

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ALTAZIMTH MOUNT

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EQUATORIAL MOUNT

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Telescope Field of View
Moon=0.5 deg.

Field of View = Eyepiece apparent FOV ÷ Magnification Large Magnification = Small field of view Small Magnification = Large Field of view

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Plane Mirror
Normal: Angle of Incidence Angle of Reflection

i
normal

r
The Law of Reflection:

i r

 r  i
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Concave & Convex Mirrors
Focal Length: Diverging (of light): Converging (of light):

Convex

The radius of curvature of the mirror is twice the focal length.

Concave

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Snell’s Law
[The Law of Refraction]
Refraction: The bending of light that occurs when it is incident on a plane surface & is going from one medium to another medium. Why does this happen? ANSWER: Because the speed of light changes in various mediums!
Normal: Angle of Incidence: Angle of Refraction:
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Snell’s Law If the light slows down, what happens to its wavelength, frequency and color? (do
(carpet & hardwood analogy)

they stay constant, increase or decrease) Recall v  . f

Different colors of light have different speeds and thus bend different amounts. (n = v/c)

If light is going from a less dense medium to a more dense one, it bends _____________ the normal.

• If light is going from a more dense medium to a less dense one, it bends _____________ from the normal. • Be sure to observe Snell’s Law in lab today as it explains why the lenses bend light or refract light.
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Diverging & Converging Lenses

The radius of curvature of the mirror is twice the focal length.

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Refractor and Reflector
Lens

Mirror

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Astrology: The belief that the positions of the stars and planets as seen from Earth impact human events.

19-Apr-13