This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
IEEE Standards View of Wireless Network Technologies Brief on WiMAX WiMAX Forum Usage Models of IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Architecture WiMAX Setup WiMAX Development Stages Problems with other Internet Access Technologies WiMAX Applications Advantages & Disadvantages of WiMAX Comparison between WiMAX & Wi-Fi
IEEE Standards View of Wireless Network Technologies
New standard for Fixed broadband Wireless. Trying to do for MAN what Wi-Fi did for LAN.
70 Mbps ~50 Km 802.16a/e
Includes 802.11a/b/g. Products must be Approved for Interoperability by the Wi-Fi Alliance.
11-54 Mbps ~100m 802.11a/b/g
~1.5 Mbps <10 m 802.15.1 (Bluetooth)
Brief on WiMAX
IEEE 802.16 standard Wireless Solution to metropolitian area network (MAN) Evolving standard for PTP & PMP wireless networking Provides QoS Solution for the “Last mile” & “Backhaul” Main Features:
Wireless Speed Broad coverage
Formed in April 2001 It is the group incharge of promoting
& asserting the
interoperability of WiMAX standard Sponsored by IEEE & ETSI Products must comply with the WiMAX standards and document their security and interoperability before receiving Forum endorsement Key Members:
Nokia Intel OFDM Ensemble Harris Crossspan Fujitsu
Services provided by WiMAX
Line-of-sight between transmitter & receiver 11 GHz to 66 GHz frequency range At Higher frequencies, there is less interference and lots more
Line-of-sight is not required in between a small antenna on CPE
and receiver 2 GHz to 11 GHz frequency range •Longer-wavelength transmissions are not as easily disrupted by physical obstructions – they are better able to diffract, or bend, around obstacles
Usage Models of IEEE 802.16
Fixed IEEE 802.16 standard Portable
IEEE 802.16-2004 standard ( revises & replaces
IEEE 802.16a & 802.16REVd versions)
Fixed access in LOS connections Operate in 10-66 Ghz frequency bands Data bandwidths of 32- 124 Mbps Cell Radius of 1 to 3 miles RF channel BW can be 20, 25, 28 MHz Uses Request/Grant access method Modulation is adaptive from 64 QAM to QPSK
Fixed & Portable access in LOS & NLOS Operate in 2-11 Ghz frequency bands Data bandwidths of 70Mbit/s Cell Radius of 4 to 7 miles ( PMP Architecture) Maximum Range of 30 miles ( PTP Architecture) Flexible RF channel BW between 1.5 MHz to 20 MHz Request/Grant access method Modulation is adaptive from 64 QAM to QPSK
Mobile access in NLOS Operate in 2-6 Ghz frequency bands Data bandwidths of 50Mbps Cell Radius of 1 to 3 miles Mobility upto 120 km/h Flexible RF channel BW between 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz Request/Grant access method SOFDMA technology Supports Handoff and Roaming
Spectrum Channel Conditions Bit Rate Modulation Mobility Channel Bandwidths Typical Cell Radius
32-124 Mbps QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
1-70 Mbps OFDM 256 sub-carriers, QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM Fixed, Portable
Up to 50 Mbps SOFDMA
Mobile (upto 120Km/h)
20, 25 and 28 MHz
Selectable channel bandwidths between 1.5 and 20 MHz
Selectable channel bandwidths between 1.25 and 20 MHz 1-3 miles
3-5 miles Maximum range 30 miles based on the tower height
Broadband Wireless Access
LOS to fixed outdoor antenna
NLOS to MSS (laptop/PDA.)
NLOS to fixed outdoor antenna NLOS to fixed Indoor antenna
MSS: Mobile Subscriber Station; LOS: Line of Sight; NLOS: Non Line of Sight
WiMAX Tower (Base Station)
Similar in concept to a cell-phone tower – a single WiMAX BS can provide coverage to a very large area as big as 30 miles
WiMAX Receiver (Subscriber Station)
The receiver could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or they could be built into a laptop
WiMAX Architecture (Contd.)
The communication path between SS and BS has two directions
Uplink (from SS to BS) Downlink (from BS to SS)
A base station can connect directly to the Internet using a high-bandwidth, wired connection It can also connect to another WiMAX tower using a line-of-sight, microwave link.
Often referred to as a backhaul Allows WiMAX to provide coverage to remote rural areas.
Setup a WiMAX base station WiMAX-enabled computer or upgrade computer to add
WiMAX capability Service Provider issues encryption code that would give access to the base station Base Station would beam data to computer via radio signals For Local Network, WiMAX base station would send data to a WiMAX-enabled switch, which would then send the data to other computers on that network
802.16 Network Topology
WiMAX Development Stages
Fixed Wireless: • Phase 1: Fixed wireless access using outdoor installed antennae providing high speed service to businesses. Also, will serve in a “backhaul” role, linking WiFi hot spots to the Internet. • Phase 2: Introduction of indoor, self-installable Customer Premises Equipment (CPE). Consumers will be able to bring home a box resembling a cable modem, plop it down anywhere in the house and receive high speed service. Mobile Wireless:
Phase 3: Manufacturers to integrate WiMAX into PC cards,
laptops, and other portable devices to enjoy high speed connectivity at home, around town, and even while speeding down the highway.
Problems with Current Internet Access Technologies
Cable and DSL technologies
Last Mile Problem: DSL can only reach about 18,000 feet (3 miles) from the central office switch—many urban, suburban and rural locations may not be served. Many older cable networks have not been equipped to provide a return channel, and converting these network to support high-speed broadband can be expensive. Cost of deploying cable is a significant deterrent to the extension of wired broadband service in areas with low subscriber density. Hot spots are very small, so coverage is sparse.
Wi-Fi (802.11) access
Uses PTP antennas to connect aggregate subscriber stations to each other and to base stations across long distances.
Uses PMP antennas to connect residential or business subscribers to the BS.
It enables the service provider to offer instantly configurable high speed connectivity for temporary events.
WiMAX Applications (Contd.)
Residential broadband: filling the gaps in cable & DSL coverage
The range, absence of a LOS requirement, high BW, flexibility and low cost helps to overcome the limitations of traditional wired and proprietary wireless technologies.
Local utilities and governments work together with a local Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP) to deliver service.
IEEE 802.16e allow users to connect to a WISP even when they roam outside their home or business, or go to another city that also has a WISP.
Advantages of WiMAX
Full support for WMAN service Improved user connectivity Longer Ranges High Throughput Higher Quality of Service (QoS) Ensures Interoperability Line of sight not required 802.16e version allows for Mobility Easy Installation lower cost CPE
Disadvantages of WiMAX
Line-of-sight (LOS) is required for long distance (5-30 mile) connections Certain conditions —terrain, weather and large buildings —can act to reduce the maximum range Other wireless electronics can interfere with the WiMAX connection & cause a reduction in data throughput licensed airwave frequencies are limited availability. Unlicensed airwaves are free but all can use them— difficult to control service quality as other users of the same band could cause interference
WiMAX Forum Frequency Allocation
Band 2.5 GHz Frequencies 2.5 to 2.69 GHz 3.3 to 3.8 GHz, but primarily 3.4 GHz to 3.6 GHz 5.25 to 5.85 GHz License Required Yes Availability Allocated in Brazil, Mexico, some Southeast Asian countries and the U.S. Worldwide Available Band, some new allocations between 3.3–3.4 and 3.6–3.8 GHz In most countries, the 3.4 GHz to 3.6 GHz band is allocated broadband wireless. 5.25 and 5.85 GHz is mainly used for private Networks (Public Utilities and Municipalities)
Yes, in some countries
Intel is producing chips and currently managing 50 test sites around the country (India) Covad (currently a big DSL provider) Motorola Canopy
Comparison between Wi-Fi & WiMAX
(IEEE 802.11 & IEEE 802.16a)
Wide (20MHz) channels
frequency 1.5 MHz to 20 MHz width channels. Channel bandwidths can be chosen by operator
s MAC designed to support 10’s MAC designed to thousands of users. of users s
802.16a is designed for subscriber density
Channel Bandwidth 802.11
Maximum Data Rate
Selectable channel bandwidths between 1.25 and 20 MHz
* Assuming a 14 MHz channel
802.16a is designed for metropolitan performance
Quality of Service (QoS)
Contention-based MAC (CSMA/CA) => no guaranteed QoS
Grant-request MAC -TDM (for DL) -TDMA (for UL) Designed to support Voice and Video
Standard cannot currently guarantee latency for Voice, Video
TDD only – asymmetric
TDD/FDD – symmetric or asymmetric
802.11e (proposed) QoS is prioritization only
High Quality of Service
Up to100 meters
Up to 50 Km
Optimized for indoor performance
Optimized for outdoor NLOS performance
802.16a is designed for distance
Existing standard is WPA + WEP
Triple-DES (128-bit) and RSA (1024-bit)
802.11i in process of addressing security
802.16a maintains fixed wireless security
PCMCIA WiFi cards - $39.95 CPE – Expect range from $200 to $1,000 Base Stations – Range from $3,000 to $10,000
Particulars Access Point 10 Mbps Subscriber Module Cluster Module Management Reflector Power Over Ethernet 60 Mbps OFDM Radio Unit Price 80,000 45,000 1,65,000 8,000 15000 8,96,000
S.No. 1. 2 3 4 5
The 802.16 Protocol Stack
WIMAX: Physical Layer
Two duplex mode
x x x
TDD: Time division duplex FDD: frequency division duplex (Different from TDMA and FDMA) Single carrier (one channel) OFDM with 256 carriers (IEEE 802.16-2004)
3 3 3
Support three kinds of physical layer technology
55 (28 low and 27 high) subcarriers are used for guard band 8 subcarriers are used for pilot signal (for channel estimation) 192 subcarriers are for users (192 simultaneous data streams!)
OFDM with 2048 carriers
IEEE 802.16 MAC layer function
Controls up and downlink transmissions so that different QoS can be provided to each user Ensures that resources to support QoS requirements of a new flow are available Scans for a channel, synchronizes the SS with the BS, performs registration, and various security issues. Provide various levels of bandwidth allocation, error rates, delay and jitter Sequence number in the MAC header is used to reassemble at the receiver
Support for integrated voice/data connections
Retransmission x Implement an ARQ(Automatic Repeat Request)
700MHz Narrowband 700MHz 900MHz 1.9GHz 2.1/2.3GHz 2.4GHz 2.5GHz 3.65 – 3.7GHz 4.9GHz 5.3/5.8GHz 12.2 – 12.7GHz 6,11,18,23GHz 38GHz
Public Safety Licensed Unlicensed & Licensed Licensed Licensed Unlicensed Licensed Unlicensed Public Safety Unlicensed Licensed Licensed Licensed
WiMAX APAC Road Trip
WiMAX has had interaction with many different regulatory bodies x US
FCC MII – Manages spectrum allocation CWTS – standards body Wireless Planning Commission (WPC), Ministry of Telecommunications – decides spectrum policy TRAI – recommends spectrum allocation ACA – manages spectrum allocation Ministry – sets spectrum policy
Spectrum by Region
Expected ’05-’07 Deployment Bands
RUSSIA 3.5 & 5.8 GHz Possible: 2.3, 2.5 GHz
CANADA 2.3, 2.5, 3.5 & 5.8 GHz USA 2.5 & 5.8 GHz Speaker
EUROPE 3.5 & 5.8 GHz Possible: 2.5 GHz
Name Central & So Title 3.5 & 5.8 America of Speaker 2.5, GHz
MIDDLE EAST AFRICA 3.5 & 5.8 GHz
ASIA PACIFIC 2.3, 2.5, 3.3, 3.5 & 5.8 GHz
Evolution of Wireless Standards
The Wi-Fi Alliance is a nonprofit international association formed to certify interoperability of WLAN products based on IEEE 802.11 specification. http://www.wi-fi.org The WiMAX Forum is a non-profit corporation with a goal of promoting deployment of broadband wireless access networks. Forum member companies support the industry-wide acceptance of the IEEE 802.16 standard. http://www.wimaxforum.org
WiMAX Forum Frequency Allocation
2.5 – 2.6 GHz (Licensed)
The bands between 2.5 and 2.6 GHz have been allocated in the US (MMDS), Mexico, Brazil and some Southeast Asian countries.Also prevalent in Southeast Asia is the 2.3 GHz band, which the Forum expects to cover with the 2.5 GHz radio (in Europe).
3.4 – 3.6 GHz (Licensed)
Worldwide Available Band, some new allocations between 3.3–3.4 and 3.6–3.8 GHz .3.4-3.6 GHz has limited availability.
5.7 – 5.8 GHz (Un-Licensed)
5.25 and 5.85 GHz is mainly used for private Networks (Public Utilities and Municipalities)
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.