# VISCO ELASTICITY 1.

INTRODUCTION
2.VARIOUS TESTS a. CREEP b. STRESS RUPTURE c. STRESS RELAXATION

3. DESIGN AGAINST CREEP

1. INTRODUCTION:
The time dependent material behavior is often referred to as viscoelasticity.

• TWO TYPES: • 1.Linear • 2.nonlinear viscoelasticity:

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A transition from linear to nonlinear viscoelasticity is shown in Figure 9. . The strain range in which a specimen is linear viscoelastic can be determined by a creep test. for stress  . D(t) = e(t) /  This property is often characterized as linear viscoelasticity. the creep compliance D(t) can be given as the ratio of strain to stress at a certain time.In general.

2.000h) 2.VISCOELASTICITY: DETERMINATION TESTS 1.strain variationlarge test period (2000-10.strss decreasing . STRESS RUPTURE TEST: -High range constant loads .Short term(<1000h) 3. STRESS RELAXATION TEST -Fixed strain . CREEP TEST : -Constant stress.

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CREEP •It is a time. .g. lead or glass).dependent deformation under a tensile load. which could CAUSE failure while in service. albeit much slower. but can also happen at room temperature in certain materials (e. •As a result.1. the material undergoes a time dependent increase in length. •Generally occurs at high temperature (thermal creep).

resulting in the failureof the blade .Components. sub to creep Gas turbine blades. pressure vessels engine… for example creep of a turbine blade will cause the blade to contact the casing. furnaces.

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TYPICAL CREEP TEST .

The creep curve .

decreasing creep rate. A typical creep curve shows three distinct stages with different creep rates.  3) Tertiary creep yields a rapid creep rate till failure. the creep rate decrease with time until reaching the steady state.  1) Primary creep provides.  2) Secondary creep -gives the representing constant creep rate. . After an initial rapid elongation εo.

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND STRESS ON CREEP RATE: T1<T2<T3<T4 σ1<σ2<σ3<σ4 .

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Refractory metals. alloyong elements(Tn. Iron alloys.metallic materials. High melting point alloys normally has high creep resistance.tungsten.. Mo.. Super alloys. Niclel alloys.stainless steels.DESIGN AGAINST CREEP – CREEP RESISTANCE FACTORS: • Strategy I: Employ materials of high melting temperatures. Molybdenim. Ta) . Ex. tantalum.Cobalt alloys.

• Strategy II: Obstruct the motion of dislocations.Second Phase Particles: The effect of second phase particles can pin the dislocations and in so doing reduce the rate of creep. Creep life could be extended by obstructing the motion of dislocations. This could be done in a number of ways: -Solid solution additions: to eliminate vacancies (major effect) . (major effect) .

Strategy III: Obstruct diffusional flow. Diffusional flow can be retarded by: Increase the grain size-Use of single crystal material .

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.Case Study I: Turbine Blade • The efficiency of gas turbines increases as the operation temperature increases. -High strength and toughness -Thermal fatigue resistance -Thermal stability -Low density • Modern blades are made out of very sophisticated Ni-superalloys which are prepared by investment casting. The temperature of the turbine blades reach 850oC. • The alloy from which the blades are made must meet very tough requirements: -Resistance to creep -Resistance to high-temperature oxidation. • Today engines operate at temperatures as high as 1400oC.

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Effect of solid solution and second phase particles .

Effect of grain size .

flat specimens or samples of any combination can be tested . •Generally performed at elevated temperatures.2. •Smooth. •Useful in materials selection where dimensional tolerances are acceptable. but rupture cannot be tolerated.STRESS RUPTURE TESTS • Determines the time necessary for material to result in failure under a overload. notched.

Stress Rupture Test .Creep vs.

3. Stress relaxation ( constant strain) Stress relaxation is defined as a gradual decrease in stress with time under a constant deformation or strain .

Stress relaxation test can be used for some practical applications. The stress data obtained from stress relaxation test can be used to calculate transient modulus for plastics design by simply dividing the stress at a particular time by the applied strain. low stress relaxation is desired for threaded bottle closures. For example. .

. solid solutions. . grain size.CONCLUSION • Understanding of Viscoelasticity and various tests • creep resistance factors. have been analysed • Cerep analysis applied to turbine blade to increase the life.