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Training and Development: Concept and Comparison, Adults learning styles, Training Needs Identification (TNI) / Training Needs Analysis (TNA), Methods and Aids of Training, Program Design and Development, Implementation & Evaluation of training Effectiveness, Learning Beyond Classroom: Experiential Learning

Training is the learning experience is that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. -Gary Dessler Training is the creation o an environment where employees may acquire or learn specific, job-related behaviors, knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes. -Terry Leap and Crino

Development is more future oriented, and concerned with education, than is employee training , or assisting a person to become a better performer. Development focuses on a developing in a systematic manner, the knowledge base, attitudes, basic skills, interpersonal skills and technical skills of the managerial cadre. - Jhonson and Sorcher Any activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers and to provide a planned growth of managers to meet future organizational requirements is management development. - S.B. Budhiraja


BASIS Meant for Aim Contents Time period Initiative TRAINING Operatives To develop specific skill personality Technical and mechanical One-short affair From management external motivation Technical and hands-on skills Operating levels Current Job Individual Employee Immediate DEVELOPMENT Executives To develop total Conceptual and philosophical Continuous affair From individual himself internal motivation Interpersonal and decision making skills Middle levels Current & Future Job Work Group or Organization Long Term

Skills Needed Needed at Focus Scope Time-Frame

Acc. to Robbins (2003), learning is any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience. Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. Learning exhibits as a change in behaviour & the inference of learning is made by comparing what behaviour was placed in a learning situation & what behaviour can be exhibited after participation in the learning process. - Gagne, 1996

Learning helps us progress from being novices to becoming experts by enhancing our capabilities. Learning strengthens the brain by building new pathways & increasing connections that we can rely on when we want to learn more. It does not happen all at once, but builds upon and is shaped by what we already know. Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, schooling, or training. It may be goaloriented and may be aided by motivation.

Adult Learning Principles

1. Adults are motivated to learn as they develop needs and interests generated by real life tasks or problems. 2. Adult orientation to learning is life- or work-centered. 3. Experience is the richest resource for adult learning. 4. Adults have a deep need to be self-directing. 5. Individual differences among adult learners increase with age and experience.

Characteristics of Adult Learners

1. Adults continuously grow and learn. 2. Adult learning is often self-initiated and aimed at an immediate goal. 3. Adults learn and process materials in a variety of ways. 4. People have preferences in subject matter or skills.

Training Needs Identification/ Analysis Selection of Training Methods & Aids Program Design and Development

Training Evaluation

Implementation of the Training Module

Training Needs Identification/ Analysis

Training need identification is a tool utilized to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity. TNA means the identification & prioritization of training requirements. - (Roger, 1994) The timely & precise identification of training needs start with the determination of knowledge, & skill essential for maximum effectiveness in an organizations position. Identification of training needs (ITN), if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered.

A need assessment can identify; - an organizations goals & its effectiveness in reaching these goals. - discrepancies or gaps between employees skills & the skills required for effective current job performance; - discrepancies between current skills & the skills needed to perform the job successfully in future & the conditions under which the HRD activity will occur.

Sources for Identifying Training Needs

Job Profile Experiences of the training agency Pre-training survey of the participant's needs

Benefits of Needs Assessment

Information about the broader needs of the participants. Reduced perception gap between the participant and boss. Course input closer to the specific needs of the participants. Saves a lot of money & Time for the organization

The most widely used methods of training used by organizations are classified into two categories: On-the-Job Training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills & abilities at the actual workplace. Off-the-Job Training requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot.

Methods of Training

COGNITIVE METHODS Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. FOCUSES- changes in knowledge and attitude by learning.

Methods that come under Cognitive Approach




This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method.

Main Features of Lecture Method Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity

This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the trainer sequentially organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved, the more learning will occur.


This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. Discussion method is a two-way flow of communication - knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to trainees - Then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to trainer. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer.


With the worldwide expansion of companies and changing technologies, the demands for knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than ever, which in turn, is putting pressure on HR department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals. Providing training to employees through Intranet or Internet. CBT does not require face-to-face interaction with a human trainer.


Behavioural methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees The various methods in this allows the trainee to behaviour in a real fashion & are best used for skill development. The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are: - Games And Simulations; - Business Games; - Equipment Stimulators; - Case Studies; - In-basket Technique & - Role Plays

Methods That Come Under Behavioural Approach

Business Games
These are based on the set of rules, procedures, plans, relationships, principles derived from the research. In business games, trainees are given some information that describes a particular situation and are then asked to make decisions that will best suit in the favour of the company.

Role Plays
It helps gain insights into various processes of human relations and also the persons attitudes and behaviour in a particular role. Dimensions judged through Role Plays: Conflict management Leadership skills Group Problem Solving Team Skills Verbal and non-verbal communication Interpersonal skill Flexibility etc.

In basket Techniques
It represents day-to-day decision making situation which a manager is likely to face in the written form from various sources. The in basket contains a variety of material in the form of memos, correspondence, telephone messages, notes, requests, etc.

Equipment simulators are the mechanical devices that necessitate trainees to use some actions, plans, measures, trials, movements, or decision processes they would use with equipment back on the their respective work place. Equipment simulators can be used in giving training to: Taxi Drivers Telephone Operators Maintenance Workers Product Development Engineers Airline Pilots

Case Studies try to simulate decision making situation that trainees may find at their work place. It reflects the situations and complex problems faced by managers, staff, HR, CEO, etc. The objective of the case study method is to get trainees to apply known concepts and ideologies and ascertain new ones. The case study method emphasize on approach to see a particular problem rather than a solution. Their solutions are not as important as the understanding of advantages and disadvantages.

Device such as a chart, diagram, notes, etc., intended to enhance learning and retention by a student or trainee. From Notes Unit 2

Program Design and Development

TRAINING DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT - The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. - The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. - Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.

Components of Training Design

The trainees A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design. The trainer Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. Training climate A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.

Trainees learning style the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program. Training strategies Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included.

Training topics After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Sequence the contents Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: - From simple to complex - Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance - From known to unknown - From specific to general - Dependent relationship

Training tactics Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors: - Trainees background - Time allocated - Style preference of trainer - Level of competence of trainer - Availability of facilities and resources, etc

Support facilities It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc. Constraints The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are: - Time - Accommodation, facilities and their availability - Furnishings and equipments - Budget etc.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify Goals & Objectives Determine Training Content Decide Training Methodologies Identify Learning Activities Define Evaluation Criteria Identify Follow-up Activities Write down the Training Design.

To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented. Implementation involves a series of activities through which training managers bring the course to learners in accordance with approved design. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success.

Factors To Keep In Mind While Implementing Training Program:

1. The trainer The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. 2. Physical set-up Good physical set up is pre requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants. 3. Establishing rapport with participants. 4. Reviewing the agenda At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run.

Training Evaluation
The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines. It is also defined as any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance & to assess the value of training in the light of that information.

Training Evaluation refers to activities aimed at finding out the effectiveness of training programmes after they are conducted, against the objectives for which such programmes were organized. Training Evaluation brings rationality, objectivity, accountability & credibility to HRD by insisting on tangible & verifiable outcomes.

Purposes of Training Evaluation

Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training. Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly. Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.

Hamblin has given 5 levels to evaluate the training programme: 1. Reactions: Trainees attempt to the overall usefulness of the training. 2. Learning: Training programme, trainers ability & trainee's ability are evaluated on the basis of content learned & time in which it is learned & learners ability to use or apply the content learned. 3. Job Behaviour: This evaluation includes the manner & extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job. 4. Organization: This evaluation measures the use of training, learning & change in the job behaviour of the department/organization in the form of increased productivity, quality, morale etc. 5. Ultimate Value: It is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals & the individual goals.

Experiential learning is a process through which students develop knowledge, skills, and values from direct experiences outside a traditional academic setting. Experiential learning encompasses a variety of activities including internships, service learning, undergraduate research, study abroad, and other creative and professional work experiences.

It is a technique whereby the students learning occurs through practical experience of a situation. Active involvement may also be through role-playing or simulation. Learning by experience or repetition is generally regarded to be the best method of practical training. Well-planned, supervised and assessed experiential learning programs can stimulate academic inquiry by promoting interdisciplinary learning, civic engagement, career development, cultural awareness, leadership, and other professional and intellectual skills.