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1817-1823 Section 1

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1816 
James Monroe V. Rufus

King
Monroe wins 183-34 Federalist
Re-elected in 1820 Makes goodwill tour of nation  1st since G.W.  Wanted national road (interstate)

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National Road 
Cumberland, MA to

Vandalia, Il.

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Diplomacy of JQA 
Seminole raids against

white settlements on Florida border
General Jackson sent to fix Invades Florida without permission
Showed that US could take Florida  Adams convinces Spain to concede Florida

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Spain 
Latin America revolting

against Spain
U.S. recognizes Latin independence

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European Powers 
Prussia, Russia, France,

and Austria
Talk of helping Spain recover lost colonies

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December 2, 1823 
JQA presents the Monroe

Doctrine to Congress

Called for the end of European colonization of the Western Hemisphere
European involvement in New World nations considered a threat to U.S. peace & Safety  Monroe pledged that U.S. would not interfere with European or New World Country affairs x Forced Russia out of Oregon Territory 54 40 ,

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Panic of 1819 
British ends Napoleonic

Wars
British ships resumed trade
American shipping boom ended

European farm production recovered
American farms exports decline

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Low on money 
Settlers buying land on

credit from "wildcat banks"
National Bank forced local banks to foreclose on loans  6 years of depression follow

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Relief Act of 1821 
Extended the payment of

loans for purchase of Western lands
stay laws

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1819 
Missouri applies to the

Union as a slave state
11/11 Southerners wanted advantage in the Senate

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Representative James Tallmadge Jr. 
Demanded MO outlaw

slavery to enter Union
How do we fix?

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1820 
Henry Clay gives Main

state ship as a free state
Missouri can now join as a slave state
Slavery was also prohibited north of the 36 30

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Election of 1824 
JQA wins  5 candidates all National

Republicans

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1828 
Andrew Jackson
Democrat 

John Quincy Adams
National Republicans

Jackson wins 178 - 83

The Jackson Presidency Section 2

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President Jackson 
a common man
Military hero Orphan Educated himself Rich slave owner

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Old Hickory 
Ruthless towards Indians
Inaugurated March 4, 1829

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Old Hickory 
Played rough all of life

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Kitchen Cabinet 
Except for MVB

(Secretary of State)
Did not refer to cabinet Instead he met with his old friends

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The Transportation Revolution 
Better roads  Water transport  Railroads

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Traveling in 1800 s 
Difficult
Mud in spring Dust in summer Snow in winter
All made travel by horseback or carriage dangerous, uncomfortable, and slow!

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Began National Road in 1808 
7 million dollars  Gravel on a stone

foundation  Built in stages
1818

Cumberland, MD Wheeling, VA (now WVA)

1833
Wheeling, VA Columbus, Oh.

1850
Columbus, Ohio Vandalia, IL.

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Commercial Shipping 
Over land = SLOW &

Expensive
Water much cheaper
Need a route from Atlantic Seaboard to Ohio/Mississippi River valley 

Problem
Pre 1820
Most water routes run N-S or coastal Canals = ANSWER

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Clinton s Ditch 
Dewitt Clinton
Gov. of New York Wanted to connect NY City with Great Lakes
Use the Hudson River 

Construction
364 miles long
83 locks 300 bridges Nearby farmers  $8/month

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Summer of 1819 
Malaria broke
Irish Contract workers
Completed October 26, 1825 Seneca Chief

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Moving West 
1830
50,000 move west
Farms built in Illinois & Indiana  Market of produce motivational 

The Big Apple
New York City
Becomes commercial & financial giant

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Invention 
1807
Robert Fulton
Improved trade  torpedoes

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First use of Federal Regulatory Power 
Steamboat Act of 1838
Set standards of construction
Safety Inspection Etc.

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Commercial Agriculture 
John Deere
Invents steel plow in 1837
Cut plowing time in half Larger acreage purchased 

Cyrus McCormick
Invents reaper in 1834
Wheat harvesting hard work Man/cradle scythe = 2 acres/day Reaper = 12 acres/day

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Indian Removal Act 
Jackson convinces

Congress to pass removal bill
George Alabama Mississippi
All wanted Native land to sell to white settlers 

Act appropriated funds for

relocation (if necessary)
Most tribes moved under negotiations
Cherokee REFUSE!

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Cherokee Refused 
Used white man s

weapon
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Supreme Court (John Marshall)  Domestic dependant nation" x Jackson ignored ruling

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1838 
Jackson orders
Cherokee to Oklahoma
7000 man Army escort 4,000 Cherokee died on The Trail of Tears

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2nd National Bank 
Most powerful in the

country
Bank President set policies that controlled nations $ supply
Made loans to members of Congress  Gained influence over Congress x Jackson Corrupt x Vetoes request for a charter

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Charter 
A written grant from

the federal government
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Jackson on Bank 

monopoly that favored the few at the expense of many

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National Republicans 
Jackson
a tyrant

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Democrats 
Jackson
defender of the people
Wins re-election  Bank goes out of buisness x Jackson deposited government funds into state banks

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1837 = 2008 
State banks made it

easier to borrow money
People took out loans they couldn t afford Economy boomed
Issued to much paper money  Rise in dollar supply made each dollar worth less

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Inflation 
Increase in prices and a

decrease in value of money
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Jackson 
orders Specie Circular
MVB rides into office on Jackson s popularity

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Whigs 
Martin Van Buren
Faced new party in 1840 

Formation
Daniel Webster & Henry Clay
Named after British party that opposed royal power  "King Jackson"

Principles
Congress, not President represented the will of the people  William Henry Harrison was canidate

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William Henry Harrison 
Military Hero
Battle of Tippecanoe 9th President 

First President to die in

office
32 days after inauguration
VP John Tyler becomes President