Access Management Principles

Introduction and Overview

Efficient traffic throughput
Neil Spiller
FHWA, Washington, D.C.

Right to property access

Presentation

– General overview – Benefits and Consequences – Access Management in Practice – Elements of an AM Program

Introduction to Access Management Principles

2

Part 1

Overview

Introduction to Access Management Principles

3

What is ―Managing Access‖?
Managing and Planning the Spacing and Design of:
Driveways Median Openings Traffic Signals

Interchanges
Introduction to Access Management Principles 4

Definition of AM

FORMAL: Access management is the programmatic control of the location, spacing, design, and operation of driveways, median openings, interchanges, and street connections to a roadway. (TRB Manual) INFORMAL: Where the road meets the driveways
Introduction to Access Management Principles 5

Purpose of AM: Balance Mobility vs. Access Freeways Major Arterials Minor Arterials Major Collectors Minor Collectors Local Streets Introduction to Access Management Principles 6 .

Supreme Court 1906 – decided that access control along highways was a sovereign power of the states.S.A Very Brief History of AM part 1 of 4 New Jersey 1902 – established “speedways” for horses and bicycles. Introduction to Access Management Principles 7 . “No public streets or other highways shall cross or intersect the speedway at grade without consent of the county” U.

to San Francisco (62 days) 1921 Federal-Aid act established a system of national routes Introduction to Access Management Principles 8 .A Very Brief History of AM part 2 of 4 Between 1900 and 1920 the number of automobiles grew from 8K to 10M and lobby groups emerged (e. AAA and AASHO) 1919.DDE undertook a transcontinental military convey from D.g.C..

In 1937 NY and RI established the first statewide statutes that included “abutting” access control and required permits and reviews as part of their state route adoption plan By late 1940’s almost every state legislated permitting accesses to some degree and court decisions began to confirm that public safety and mobility essentially trumped a landowner’s absolute right to access at any point Introduction to Access Management Principles 9 .A Very Brief History of AM part 3 of 4 In 1920’s it became apparent that automobile (related) deaths were soaring.

not to be landlocked) but does NOT have right to expect absolute access at any point. NOR should they expect compensation for relocated access as long as the government shows justifiable cause and least-impact.Basic ―right to access‖ A property owner has right to have access (i. Introduction to Access Management Principles 10 .e..

A Very Brief History of AM part 4 of 4 National standards for individual driveway design were developed in 1960 – AASHO “An Informational Guide for Preparing Private Driveway Regulations for Major Highways” NCHRP Report 121 (1971) “Protection of Highway Utility” stands as one of the earliest. most recognized discussions of access control Beginning of modern AM – credited to Colorado. when they created 1st comprehensive principals of AM and spelled out the safety. aesthetic and delay-reducing benefits of AM “incorporated” into statute Introduction to Access Management Principles 11 . 1979.

1979 “The lack of adequate access management on the highway system and the proliferation of driveways and other access approaches is a major contributor to highway accidents and the greatest single factor behind the functional deterioration of highways in this state. the speeds and capacity of the roadways decrease. and congestion challenges to the motorist increase.Colorado State Highway Access Code Introduction to Access Management Principles 12 . As new accesses are constructed and signals erected.Colorado.” -.

National Perspective • “The lack of access control along arterial highways has been the largest single factor contributing to the obsolescence of highway facilities” NCHRP Report 121 Protection of Highway Utility • “Every study since the 1940’s has indicated a direct and significant link between access frequency and accidents” International R/W Assoc. 1999 Introduction to Access Management Principles 13 . conference paper.

Part 2 Benefits and Consequences Introduction to Access Management Principles 14 .

Introduction to Access Management Principles 15 . so too does the propensity for accidents in that corridor.Driveways are inevitable and necessary but as their numbers go up.

more green) Introduction to Access Management Principles 16 .Benefits of AM • • • • • • Preserve integrity of the roadway system Improve safety and capacity Extend functional life of the roadways Preserve public investment in infrastructure Preserve private investment in properties Provide a more efficient (and predictable) motorist experience • Improve “thru” times through a corridor • Improve aesthetics (less pavement.

Groups Who Benefit Which groups will benefit from good AM? • Motorists • Cyclists • Peds • Business Owners • Communities Introduction to Access Management Principles 17 .

% of Driveway Crashes by Movement 16% Here‘s a scoop! 27% 10% 47% The majority of access-related crashes involve LT’s (63%) Introduction to Access Management Principles 18 .

1 2 1.8 2.3 1 1 0 10 20 30 40 # Access Points per Mile Introduction to Access Management Principles 1.Composite Crash Rate Indices Crash Index: Ratio of crashes to Access Points per Mile Crash rate indices increase as # of access points per mile increases 5 4.1 4 3 2.7 50 60 19 .

AM applied here through physical means AM in the Transportation and Land Use Cycle AM applied here through administrative means Introduction to Access Management Principles 20 .

What‘s the bottom line? Over-arching Goal of AM: Limit the number and impact of driver decision and conflict points from impacting on through traffic. Introduction to Access Management Principles 21 .

However. the ripples are dynamic. Introduction to Access Management Principles 22 . cont‘d Traffic Conflict Think of a single traffic conflict as one rock in a pond. when dozens of rocks are thrown in at once. and it is difficult to avoid one at the cost of another. The ripples are easy to see and are predictable. they create chaos.Conflicts.

Conflict Points Each access point creates potential conflicts between through traffic and turning traffic. Diverge Merge Cross Stop / Queue Weave Introduction to Access Management Principles 23 .

Conflicts o ∆ 16 Crossing 8 Diverge o 1 Crossing ∆ 3 Diverge  4 Merge 8 TOTAL  8 Merge 32 TOTAL (and don’t forget pedestrian and bicycle movements too!) Introduction to Access Management Principles 24 .

less customers will want to make the trip Introduction to Access Management Principles 25 . hence.Consequences of Poor AM • • • • • • • • Increase in crashes and crash rates Poor capacity throughput Increased delays Reduced roadway efficiency Potential for unsightly strip development Decreased property values Potential for unwanted cut-thru traffic Potential for less desirable experience.

Effect of Speed Differential to Propensity for Crashes Relative Crash Ratio 100 80 90x 60 40 20 3.3x Baseline 23x 0 10 +10 MPH (20) +20 MPH +25 MPH (30) (35) Speed Differential (MPH) Introduction to Access Management Principles 26 .

and hierarchy of streets • Enforce against violations and poor practices in siting driveways and streets Introduction to Access Management Principles 27 .How to improve ―Consequences‖ • Unclutter the corridor (“Pruning”) • Direct where driveways are best suited • “Assign” turn movements by defining and separating them • Develop guidelines for property access. thru traffic.

Part 3 Access Management in Practice Introduction to Access Management Principles 28 .

Use turn lanes to queue separate movements and to ―free up‖ through movements Introduction to Access Management Principles 29 .Use non-traversable medians to separate traffic and direct motorists where to access properties.

Driveway Bypass Lane Where restricted from placing a median. can you install a bypass lane? Introduction to Access Management Principles 30 .

Median Redesign Note: 1) increased separation between intersections 2) Introduction of U-turns to replace former movements Introduction to Access Management Principles 31 .

5 Source: "Colorado Access Control Demonstration Project" .9 10.9 12.Results— Fewer accidents on ‗Managed‘ roads 14 “Regular” Arterials 12.5 12.2 5.0 3.1985 Colfax Alameda Federal Wadsworth Havana Ave Blvd Ave Ave Ave Parker Arapahoe Dr Ave Introduction to Access Management Principles 32 Access Management .5 12 Accidents Per Million Miles Traveled 10 8 6 4 2 0 Highly Access Managed Arterials 7.

peak hour Colfax Alameda Federal Wadsworth Havana Parker "Regular” Arterials 23 28 25 25 30 Highly Accessed-Managed Arterials Arapahoe 48 46 0 10 20 Speed (mph) 30 40 50 33 Access Management Introduction to Access Management Principles .M.Results— Higher „thru‟ speeds on ‗Managed‘ roads Effects of Access Management on travel speeds in the P.

. .Signal Spacing Variables • “Tweak” these . . . – Intersection spacing – Overall cycle lengths – Cycle phasing • To “Seek” these . – Progression speed – Progression efficiency Introduction to Access Management Principles 34 .

mile 80 sec 60 sec ½-mile 120 sec 100 sec 50 MPH na 50 sec 80 sec 35 Introduction to Access Management Principles .Relationship between cycle length. signal spacing. and speed ¼-mile 30 MPH 40 MPH 60 sec na 1/3 .

What methods are used? • • • • • • • • Permits. and design Corner clearance Cross-access and joint access Frontage roads and connectors Introduction to Access Management Principles 36 . spacing. legislation and corridor planning Medians Auxiliary lanes Signals and signal spacing Driveway location.

bicycles.) • Developers • Land use attorneys • Agency staff Non professionals • Citizens. motorists • Property Owners • Ad-hoc groups (pedestrians. social change) Introduction to Access Management Principles 37 . etc. Councils.Who is Responsible for AM? Professionals that guide urban development • Planners • Engineers • Architects • Approval agents (Boards.

What is “Functional Intersection Area” and why is this important? The influence area associated with a driveway includes • The impact length (distance back at which cars begin to be affected) • Perception-reaction distance • And the “car length” Upstream length > Downstream length Introduction to Access Management Principles 38 .

. Note that closely spaced driveways and intersections have overlapping areas. queue storage. RT-out acceleration. are there more? Introduction to Access Management Principles 39 . Elements that impact the functional intersection area: stopping sight distance.Functional Intersection Area The upstream and downstream areas of influence that affect driver decision. etc. perception-reaction time. slowing to turn.

Application of ‗Access Window‘ Window for left or right Window for RT only No window on higher street Introduction to Access Management Principles 40 .

Different types of Access Controls • • • • “Police” power Eminent domain Condemnation Statutes and statutory designation Introduction to Access Management Principles 41 .

In plain English?! An agency uses eminent domain to purchase or “take” the right of access. An agency uses their police power to approve or deny the application for a driveway and impart public safety Introduction to Access Management Principles 42 .

Part 4 Elements of an AM Program Introduction to Access Management Principles 43 .

and public Establish an approval authority Have geometric design standards Provide staff training and education re: policies Monitor approvals (inspect) and conduct agency evaluations Develop an request/approval process and fees. contacts. Provide consistent and justifiable application of standards Document meetings. councils. and written communications Allow for appeals and justified deviations/exceptions Introduction to Access Management Principles 44 .Elements of an AM Program • • • • • • • • • • Have administrative rules. etc. ordinances or guidelines Educate your boards.

Council. structure and goal Schools Sports Access Management Mayor. guidance. safety 45 Oversight Leadership Day-to-day execution Guiding principles Stakeholders Product School Board Principal Teachers Lesson Plans Parents Owner Coach Players Playbook. rules Fans Quality of effort and wins / losses Graduates Introduction to Access Management Principles . and need for.Every stakeholder needs to be ―on board‖ with the plan and aware of the consequences of. DPW Staff Design statutes Motorists and property owners Improved traffic progression. Board DPZ.

Have a plan – stick to it! “uncontrolled” access over time “controlled” access via permitting Introduction to Access Management Principles 46 .

R/W.Levels of Approval • Federal interstates / State highways • Local highways and streets • Local site plan approvals must meet other agencies’ regulations (zoning. EPA) • Adopted Master Plans • Zoning and long range planning must be considered • Other stakeholders? Adjacent/abutting property owners? Public? Introduction to Access Management Principles 47 .

gas station Closest intersections upand down stream Medium site. non urban) location Scope: Driveway only or nearest intersection Small site. destination oriented Small strip retail. local impact Bank.. large residential/retail complex.Traffic Impact Study Areas Very small site or re-use Owner-transfer.e. restaurant. bigbox store Introduction to Access Management Principles Large cordon of intersections. regionally impacting Shopping center. including major connections 48 . same use-upgrade or isolated (i. small office or residential complex Radius of neighborhood intersections Large site.

.FHWA‘s Role • To champion the role that AM serves in improving safety and reducing delay • Increase awareness of. • To sponsor AM-related studies and enable academic research • To educate (through NHI courses. and benefits of . et al) Key Products ―Benefits of Access Management‖ Tri-fold Introduction to Access Management Principles AM DVD AM Resource DVD Public Meeting Handout and CD CD 49 .

• Write AM guidelines for states. . recommending. we have a mandated role in reviewing. and approving some state-sponsored activities regarding (mostly) the interstates Introduction to Access Management Principles 50 .FHWA does not . . et al • Mandate AM regulations (although we certainly “advise” ) as a general rule • Make decisions on new access’ on interstates (the states do) Caveat – because FHWA oversees Federal funding.

– All routes on the Interstate System are part of NHS – Includes STRAHNET routes Introduction to Access Management Principles 51 . Eisenhower National System of Interstate Highways – Routes of highest importance – Shall not exceed 43.Federal Aid Highway System (Routes eligible for Federal aid) • Interstate System – Dwight D.000 mi. • National Highway System – Shall not exceed 178.250 mi.

Urban. or Small Urban designations Introduction to Access Management Principles 52 .FHWA Functional Classification Guidelines Principal arterials Minor arterial streets (“roads” in rural areas) Collector streets (“roads” in rural areas) Local Streets (“roads” in rural areas) For Rural.

animation Introduction to Access Management Principles 53 .info Complete proceedings and prior years‘ too! Ten principles of AM -.accessmanagement.TRB‘s website www.

Introduction to Access Management Principles 54 .

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