TSL3107 TEACHING WRITING SKILLS IN THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM

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LESSON 2: DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF WRITING (PART 1)
Mohd Iskandar bin Daud IPGKKB

Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2

Developmental Stages of Writing (Part 1)
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 Writing Readiness
Mechanics Penmanship

Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2

Developmental Stages of Writing
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 Developmental Stages of Writing

Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2

Writing readiness
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 What is writing readiness?  The skills and understandings necessary for

minimum success in completing a writing task

Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2

children are more ready to learn skills of spelling.children are more ready to learn materials that meets their needs and fits their already established interests. Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .Emotional stress blocks readiness for learning especially those resulting from unmet needs. 3.sufficient stage of mental and physical development 2.exposure to basic skills is necessary before complex tasks are tackled. Relevance of materials and methods of instruction . Maturation . and other home difficulties. overprotection. previous experience of school failure. reading and writing when they are having fun doing 4. rejection in the home. Experience . Emotional attitude and personal adjustment .Factors affecting writing readiness 5 1.

 From childhood through school. drawing. and rudiments of writing. pictures. and writing materials at home. reading.  The children should have knowledge about books.Building Learning Readiness 6  Begins before the child even enters school:  The parents should provide books. Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . children should be exposed to skills both for their immediate usefulness and for their preparation for new learning.

2. Build up the fine motor skills Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . understanding and knowledge required in studying a given material. understanding and knowledge as well as the specific areas of strengths and weaknesses) 3. Design the instructional programmed to match the individual needs and abilities of each learner 4.Building Learning Readiness (cont) 7  Building learning readiness necessitates the following     steps: 1. Use diagnostic pre-tests and other devices to determine the level each prospective learner possesses (the prerequisite skills. Analyze the skills.

use stencils Gaining more control of small muscles – Activities like squeezing.put plenty of paper and writing materials in writing areas at home Making circles and other basic shapes . play Bingo. cutting. lacing and stringing. finding and naming letters. etc Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .  The skills along the path to writing are as follows:       Scribbling with crayons . etc Making representational drawings – get the child to explain the drawing Beginning to recognize letters .Refer to his/her name written on a card. etc Consolidating letter recognition . tracing. Pick out letters they know.label the room. he/she must first build up their fine motor skills.Point out shapes in the room. pinching .Building fine motor skills 8  In order for a child to write meaningfully.

Write other names if they know how  Writes other words .Read familiar books with only one or two lines on a page. etc  Improves through practice and positive feedback .Write letters to family members. etc  Writes name .picking out known words. reminders for parents. etc Encourage all efforts to write! ** Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .model writing his/her name and get him/her to copy it. notice similarities and differences in words  Realizes the permanency of words (r-u-n always spells run) . provide chalk and a chalkboard. write rhymes. stories. provide word and picture cards. provide letter cards and stencils.Building fine motor skills (cont) 9  How to help writing readiness of a child? (cont)  Begins to recognize written names and some words .provide a well-stocked writing area. Notice word labels in the room  Begins to imitate letters .a journal.

Mechanics is the term we use to describe the technical aspects of writing. and that will attract more readers. etc  If a piece of writing is not mechanically well-written – hard to figure out what is trying to be said. capitalization. punctuation. such as spelling.The mechanics of writing 10  Def . seen as poorly written.  See example: Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . reflects the writer‘s attitude and may be cognitive level too  Good mechanics make a story easy to read.

but it also impossible to understand the meaning of it Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .The mechanics of writing 11  Memorable Students  they are the memorable students in any class they participate fully in any mischief they see no point in volunteering for extra jobs they delight in distracting their classmates they take no pleasure in learning they are never satisfied  Not only is the above example difficult to read because of the lack of punctuation and capitalization.

they take no pleasure. In any mischief. they delight. Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . they see no point. They participate fully in any mischief. They see no point in volunteering for extra jobs. In distracting their classmates. it the same passage can be read this way: Memorable Students  They are the memorable students. In volunteering for extra jobs. In any class. OR  They are the memorable students in any class. In learning. They are never satisfied.The mechanics of writing 12  With punctuation. They delight in distracting their classmates. They take no pleasure in learning. they are never satisfied. they participate fully.

).). quotation marks (―‖).The mechanics of writing 13  So are these ―memorable students‖ good students or bad students? Based on the original text. apostrophes (‗). they make writing look more organized and easier to read and understand Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . a sentence is a complete thought or idea  Punctuation  marks such as periods (. question marks (?). semi-colons (. Can you see how important mechanics are to meaning?  Some basic mechanics of writing:  Sentences  To put it simply. and colons (:)  When used correctly. exclamation points (!). we have no way of knowing.). commas (.

SVA . This is another problem some beginning writers have. etc)   Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .The mechanics of writing 14  Paragraphing    A paragraph is a group of sentences that all revolve around the same topic or idea Huge paragraphs are hard to follow. switch tenses like crazy. when learning to write in school. both from a comprehension and a physical standpoint. you should start a new paragraph every time you start talking about something new The most important thing to remember about tense is to choose one tense and stick to it. when text is broken up into smaller paragraphs with empty spaces in between The general rule is. Many kids. It is easier to read.different forms of every verb that go with different subjects. don‘t get confused  Grammar (Tense. Subject-Verb Agreement.

The mechanics of writing 15  Homonyms  words which sound the same.  another lovely feature of the confusing English language  Eg: Your/You‘re. Its/It‘s. To/Too/Two. but mechanical correctness as well. but are spelled differently and have different meanings. Lose/Loose – commonly confused Reading over what you‘ve written with a critical eye. It helps you catch and correct your mistakes before readers see them  Practice (proofreading)   Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . is crucial. Then/Than. judging on not just content. There/Their/They‘re.

will U sign a song 4 me? “Sure” Nick agreed and breaks into don’t wanna loose you now. I love U guys so much your my favorite band. “Wear should we eat”? asks Howie his body jerking backward as the bus lurched away from the venue. before they knew it the bus was pulling up in front of the familiar golden arches. they had just finished there concert that night in Chicago and was on they’re way to grab a bite to eat than they would be driving on to the next city Milwaukee. “You always want two go too Mickey D’s AJ” complained Kevin “can’t we eat healthy four once?” Howie agrees with Kevin but the to were quickly overruled by the other three who insisted on fast food.  Oh my God its’ the backstreet boys screamed the gurl at the counter when they walked in to order. the other guys came in on they’re parts but the girl was squealing louder then they could sing Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .Proofreading practice 16  Kevin Howie Brian AJ and Nick piled onto the bus. “How about McDonald’s”? AJ suggested smiling.

but the two were quickly overruled by the other three. AJ. “Oh my God. Then they would be driving on to the next city.” complained Kevin. They had just finished     their concert that night in Chicago and were on their way to grab a bite to eat. Brian. and Nick piled onto the bus.Answer (50 errors) 17  Kevin. you’re my favorite band! Will you sign a song for me?” “Sure.” Nick agreed and broke into “Don’t Wanna Lose You Now. Before they knew it. Milwaukee. it’s the Backstreet Boys!” screamed the girl at the counter when they walked in to order. “How about McDonald’s?” AJ suggested. the bus was pulling up in front of the familiar golden arches.” The other guys came in on their parts. “You always want to go to Mickey D’s. “Can’t we eat healthy for once?” Howie agreed with Kevin. “Where should we eat?” asked Howie. J. smiling. but the girl was squealing louder than they could sing Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . his body jerking backward as the bus lurched away from the venue. “I love you guys so much. who insisted on fast food. Howie.

 Holding the pen and guiding it across paper depends mostly upon sensory information from skin. joints and muscles of the hand and this adjusts movement to changes in the friction between pen and paper Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . whilst an individual personal style of penmanship is referred to as handwriting  Motor control . wrist.Handwriting requires the motor coordination of multiple joints in the hand. elbow and shoulder to form letters and to arrange them on the page.Penmanship is the technique of writing with the hand using a writing instrument  The various generic and formal historical styles of writing are called hands.Penmanship 18  Def .

handwriting becomes highly automated using motor programs stored in motor memory  Compared to other complex motor skills handwriting is far less dependent on a moment-tomoment visual guidance Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .Penmanship 19  With practice and familiarity.

and letters and packages delivered to incorrect addresses -.or not delivered at all. they begin in the classroom . Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .  up to $95.000. phone calls made to wrong or non-existent numbers.for similar or identical work.000.  $200.  The repercussions of poor handwriting aren't limited to the workplace.Reasons for good penmanship 20  In the United States each year:  the health of at least 1 in 10 Americans is endangered by the poor handwriting of their physicians. poor handwriting results in lower grades -.000 in tax refunds are not delivered because of unreadable tax-forms.repeated research has shown that even when teachers are told not to take off points for bad handwriting.as much as a full letter grade lower -.000 in time and money is lost because poor handwriting results in such problems as confused and inefficient employees.

and with the increased importance of prescription medicines in treating diseases of every sort. poor penmanship increases the probability of fatal medication errors Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .Poor penmanship 21 physicians’ handwriting is notoriously bad.

That can be accomplished by having children trace the letters with their index fingers before they begin writing.Teaching handwriting 22  Effective handwriting instruction should focus on the three components of handwriting . size.first. letter formation.  When teaching handwriting. Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . spacing. size. however. teachers should focus on one component at a time -.letter formation (form and slant). then. children first must learn the starting and stopping point of each letter. and then.  The form and slant of specific letters will depend on the style of handwriting being taught. and spacing. Whatever style you're teaching.

Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .Teaching handwriting 23  Posture and paper position also are important to ensure correct letter formation and slant. placing the paper at a 45 degree angle toward the writing-arm side of the body and tilting it to conform to the position of the writing arm's forearm. Students should sit upright with both feet flat on the floor.

Teaching handwriting 24 Paper position and correct posture Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

t) and descenders (g. k.more accurately. z) should be half the size of ascenders (b. m. w. x. o. i. u. small letters (a. n. e. q. Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 . y). h.Teaching handwriting 25  Letter size -. j. letter proportion -. v. r. For example.  Capital letters should be about the same height as ascenders.  Proper proportion can be taught using handwriting paper with a dotted middle line. s. d.is fairly consistent across handwriting styles. l. p. Similarly-shaped letters should be the same height. c.

Teaching handwriting 26 Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

Teaching handwriting 27 Handwriting paper with a dotted middle line. Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

Teaching handwriting 28 Follow the direction of arrows when writing letters and numbers Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

The fourth finger and pinky should be curved in toward the palm. The middle finger should be curved under the writing utensil. Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .Teaching handwriting 29  Proper spacing includes both spacing between letters and spacing between words. with the utensil resting lightly on the area between the tip and first knuckle. Students can use their pinkies to measure the correct distance between words. The space between each letter in a word should be the same. Instruct students to hold the pen or pencil close to the writing tip with the thumb and index fingers.  Proper grip of the pen or pencil is another important aspect of good handwriting. The space between each word also should be consistent.

Teaching handwriting 30 Proper pencil grip Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

sprawling on desk.writing in the space in top margin. writing along the bottom edge of the paper under last line. knees not under desk & aligned with paper Pencil Grip – awkward. holding head up with one     hand. incorrect fingers used to hold pencil Writing on the lines . not writing on the lines Starting at the margins .Common Things that Contribute to Poor Handwriting 31  Posture . indent too large (should only be the width of a finger) Spacing .not starting at the left margin.too much space between words – like in primary (should only be the width of the letter m) Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

slow (lack focus. no continuous writing). pencil lead is too soft (smudges). slow (needs to think of letter formation while writing). pencil lead is too hard (writing is very light & hard to read).Common Things that Contribute to Poor Handwriting 32  Speed . irregular letter size  Writing tools .smudged. lack of speed means that student cannot keep up with transcribing notes from the board (constantly behind).time wasted) Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .pencil not sharpened well enough. writing tools not at hand (lost. too fast (writing becomes illegible)  Neatness . misplaced . blotchy.

linking. joint writing. double writing in Australia and linking in New Zealand. Canada..  The term handwriting is common in the United States. known as Joinedup writing in the U. in which the letters of a word are unconnected Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .Cursive vs print 33  What is cursive writing?  Joined-up writing. running writing. or handwriting is any style of penmanship in which the symbols of the language are written in a conjoined and/or flowing manner  Generally for the purpose of making writing faster  The terms cursive or script are popular in the U. Australia and New Zealand  Quite distinct from the so-called block letter.K.S.. print- script or printing method of writing.

Types of cursive writing 34  D'Nealian  Getty-Dubay  Zaner-Bloser  Palmer Method Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

Types of cursive writing 35 Manuscript—Modern (D‘Nealian) Cursive—Modern (D‘Nealian) Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

Getty/Dubay) Linked—Italic (Portland.Types of cursive writing 36 Manuscript—Italic (Portland. Getty/Dubay) Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

Types of cursive writing 37 Manuscript—Zaner-Bloser Cursive—Zaner-Bloser Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

Types of cursive writing 38 Manuscript—Palmer Cursive—Palmer Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

they can‘t read it either. Learning cursive writing helps students develop reading. Several studies also suggest that cursive writing improves the fluidity of thought in written communication and helps to develop students’ fine motor skills. communication. including hand-eye coordination 2. students won‘t be able to read historical documents such as the Declaration of Independence Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .Reasons to teach cursive handwriting 39 1. Scholars point out that without instruction in cursive handwriting. and fine motor skills   There is a direct link between the process of learning to write in cursive and the ability to read fluently. Studying for a test is difficult when students can‘t read their own notes. Students must be able to read cursive handwriting   Not only will these students struggle with cursive writing .

Students can write in cursive faster than they can print 5. and employee mistakes in the various areas Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .  Undeliverable tax refunds. style 4. letters and packages sent to wrong addresses. Cursive writing receives higher marks.   Multiple studies have found that neatly written papers receive higher marks than papers with messy handwriting Some researchers also suggest that papers written in cursive receive higher marks than those written in block.Reasons to teach cursive handwriting 40 3. or manuscript. Illegible writing creates problems for society.

Lesson and activities 41  Sample lesson  Sample activities Mohd Iskandar TSL3107 Lesson 2 .

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