Chapter 8 Large-Sample

Estimation
General Objectives:
This chapter presents a method for estimating population
parameters and illustrates the concept with practical examples.
The Central Limit Theorem and the sampling distributions
presented in Chapter 7 play a key role in evaluating the
reliability of the estimates.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Specific Topics
1. Types of estimators
2. Picking the best point estimator
3. Point estimation for a population mean or proportion
4. Interval estimation
5. Large-sample confidence intervals for a population mean or
proportion
6. Estimating the difference between two population means
7. Estimating the difference between two binomial proportions
8. One-sided confidence bounds
9. Choosing the sample size
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
8.1 Where We’ve Been
Descriptive Statistics
Probability and Probability Distributions
Binomial and Normal Distributions
Link Between Probability and Statistical Inference
The Central Limit Theorem
Populations
Statistics
Inferential Statistics
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
8.2 Where We’re Going—
Statistical Inference
 Applications of inference:
- The government needs to predict short- and long-term
interest rates.
- A broker wants to forecast the behavior of the stock market
- A metallurgist wants to decide whether or new type of steel is
more resistant to high temperatures than the old type was.
- A consumer wants to estimate the selling price of her house
before putting it on the market.
 Statistical inference is concerned with making decisions or
predictions about parameters.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
 Methods for making inferences about population parameters fall
into one of two categories:
- Estimation: Estimating or predicting the value of the
parameter
- Hypothesis testing: Making a decision about the value of a
parameter based on some preconceived idea about what its
value might be
 Examples 8.1 and 8.2 give illustrations of estimation and
hypothesis testing problems respectively.
 Statistical procedures are important because they provide two
types of information:
- Methods for making the inference
- A numerical measure of the goodness or reliability of the
inference.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Example 8.1
The circuits in computers and other electronics equipment
consist of one or more printed circuit boards (PCB), and
computers are often repaired by simply replacing one or more
defective PCBs. In an attempt to find the proper setting of a
plating process applied to one side of a PCB, a production
supervisor might estimate the average thickness of copper
plating on PCBs using samples from several days of operation.
Since he has no knowledge of the average thickness µ before
observing the production process, his is an estimation problem.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
8.3 Types of Estimators
Definition: An estimator is a rule, usually expressed as a formula,
that tells us how to calculate an estimate based on information
in the sample.
 Estimators are used in two different ways:
- Point estimation: Based on sample data, a single number is
calculated to estimate the population parameter.
The rule or formula that describes this calculation is called
the point estimator, and the resulting number is called a point
estimate.
- Interval estimation: Based on sample data, two numbers are
calculated to form an interval within which the parameter is
expected to lie.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
The rule or formula that describes this calculation is called the
interval estimator, and the resulting pair of numbers is called an
interval estimate or confidence interval.
 Example 8.3 discusses a possible estimator based on sample
data.
Example 8.3
A veterinarian wants to estimate the average weight gain per
month of 4-month-old golden retriever pups that have been
placed on a lamb and rice diet. The population consists of the
weight gains per month of all 4-month-old golden retriever pups
that are given this particular diet. Hence, it is a hypothetical
population where µ is the average monthly weight gain for all
4-month-old golden retriever pups on this diet. This is the
unknown parameter that the veterinarian wants to estimate. One
possible estimator based on sample data is the sample mean,


©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
n x x
i
¿
=
_
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
It could be used in the form of a single number or point
estimate—for instance, 3.8 pounds—or you could use an
interval estimate and estimate that the weight gain will fall into
an interval such as 2.7 to 4.9 pounds.

8.4 Point Estimation
 Point estimation is used in estimating population means and
proportions.
 To choose the best statistic or estimator, observe their behavior
in repeated sampling, described by their sampling distributions.
 Two characteristics are valuable in a point estimator:
1. The sampling distribution of the point estimator should be
centered over the true value of the parameter to be estimated.
2. The spread (as measured by the variance) of the sampling
distribution should be as small as possible.
 Figure 8.1 illustrates differences in centering and spread for
sampling distributions.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Figure 8.1
Definition: An estimator is said to be unbiased if the mean of its
distribution is equal to the true value of the parameter.
Otherwise, the estimator is said to be biased.
 Figure 8.2 shows distributions for biased and unbiased
estimators. Figure 8.3 compares estimator variability.









Definition: The distance between an estimate and the estimated
parameter is called the error of estimation.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Figure 8.2
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Point Estimation of a Population Parameter:
- Point estimator: A statistic calculated using sample
measurements
- Margin of error: 1.96 × Standard error of the estimator.
 Figure 8.4 shows the sampling distribution of an unbiased
estimator.
Figure 8.4
Estimating a population mean or proportion:
 To estimate the population mean µ for a quantitative population,
the point estimator is unbiased with standard error given as


- The margin of error is calculated as

- If o is unknown and n is 30 or larger, the sample SD s can be
used to approximate o .
 To estimate the population proportion p for a binomial
population, the point estimator is unbiased with
standard error given as .
- The margin or error is calculated as
and estimated as
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
x
n
SE
o
=
. 96 . 1
|
.
|

\
|
±
n
o
n pq SE / ) ( =
. / ) ˆ ˆ ( 96 . 1 n q p ±
n pq / ) ( 96 . 1 ±
n x p = ˆ
 Assumptions: np > 5 and nq > 5. Since p and q are unknown,
use
 Table 8.1 displays some calculated values of
Examples 8.4 and 8.5 estimate the population mean and the
population proportion, respectively.
 In calculating the standard error for these two point estimates,
you need to estimate o with s, p with and q with
Table 8.1
p pq p pq
.1 .09 .30 .6 .24 .49
.2 .16 .40 .7 .21 .46
.3 .21 .46 .8 .16 .40
.4 .24 .49 .9 .09 .30
.5 .25 .50

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
. 5 ˆ and 5 ˆ > > q n p n
. pq
, ˆ p
pq pq
. ˆ q
Example 8.4
An investigator is interested in the possibility of merging the
capabilities of television and the Internet. A random sample of
n = 50 Internet users who were polled about the time they spend
watching television produced an average of 11.5 hours per
week with a standard deviation of 3.5 hours. Use this informa-
tion to estimate the population mean time Internet users spend
watching television.
Solution
The random variable measured is the time spent watching
television per week. This is a quantitative random variable best
described by its mean µ. The point estimate of µ , the average
time Internet users spend watching television, is hours.
The margin of error is
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
5 . 11 = x
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
50
96 . 1 96 . 1 96 . 1 SE 96 . 1
_
o o
o
n
x
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Although o is unknown, the sample size is large, and you can
approximate the value of o by using s. Therefore, the margin of
error is approximately



You can feel fairly confident that the sample estimate of
11.5 hours of television watching for Internet users is within
±1 hour of the population mean.
1 97 .
50
5 . 3
96 . 1 96 . 1 ~ =
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
n
s
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Figure 8.5 Plot of treatment means and their standard errors
8.5 Interval Estimation
 An interval estimator is a rule for calculating two numbers—say,
a and b—that create an interval that you are fairly certain
contains the parameters of interest, e.g., a confidence interval.
 The concept of ―fairly certain‖ can be quantified using a
statistical concept called the confidence coefficient and
designated by (1÷ o).
Definition: The probability that a confidence interval will contain
the estimated parameter is called the confidence coefficient.
Constructing a Confidence Interval:
- For the standard normal random variable z, 95% of all values
lie between ÷1.96 and 1.96.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
 Figure 8.6 shows the 95% confidence limits for a population
parameter.
 Figure 8.7 displays the locations of z
o

/

2
. Table 8.2 displays
values of z commonly used.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Figure 8.6 95% confidence limits for a population parameter
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Figure 8.7 Location of z
o

/

2
- For an unbiased point estimator with a normal sampling
distribution, 95% of all point estimates lie with 1.96 standard
errors of the parameter of interest.
- Consider constructing the interval as: point estimate ± 1.96SE.
As long as the point estimate is within 1.96SE of the
parameter of interest, the interval centered at this estimate will
contain the parameter of interest. This will happen 95% of the
time.
 You may want to change the confidence coefficient from
(1÷ o ) = .95 to another confidence level (1÷ o ). To do this, you
will need to adjust the z-value.
A (1÷ o )100% Large-Sample Confidence Interval:

where z
o

/

2
is the z-value with an area of o / 2 in the right tail of a
standard normal distribution. This formula generates two values;
the lower confidence limit (LCL) and the upper confidence limit
(UCL).
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
estimator) the of error (Standard estimator) (Point
2 /
× ±
o
z
A (1÷ o )100% Large-Sample Confidence Interval
for a Population Mean µ :


where z
o

/

2
is the value corresponding to an area o / 2 in the
upper tail of a standard normal z distribution, and
n = Sample size
o = Standard deviation of the sampled population.
If o is unknown, it can be approximated by the sample standard
deviation s when the sample size is large (n > 30) and the
approximate confidence interval is


 Example 8.6 constructs a 95% confidence interval for the mean
daily intake of dairy products for men.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
n
z x
o
o 2 /
±
n
s
z x
2 / o
±
Example 8.6
A scientist interested in monitoring chemical contaminates in
food, and thereby the accumulation of contaminates in human
diets, selected a random sample of n = 50 male adults. It was
found that the average daily intake of dairy products was
grams per day with a standard deviation of s = 35 grams
per day. Use this sample information to construct a 95%
confidence interval for the mean daily intake of dairy products
for men.
Solution
Since the sample size of n = 50 is large, the distribution of the
sample mean is approximately normally distributed with mean
µ and standard error Since the population standard
deviation is unknown, you can use the sample standard
deviation s as its best estimate.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
756 = x
x
. n o
The approximate 95% confidence interval is








Hence, the 95% confidence interval for µ is from 746.30 to
765.70 grams per day.
 Interpreting the Confidence Interval:
95% of the confidence intervals constructed using different
sample information would contain within their upper and lower
bounds.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
x
|
.
|

\
|
±
n
s
x 96 . 1
|
.
|

\
|
±
50
35
96 . 1 756
) 95 . 4 ( 96 . 1 756 ±
70 . 9 756 ±
 Figure 8.8 shows 20 confidence intervals for the mean for
Example 8.6.
 Example 8.7 constructs a 99% confidence interval for the mean
daily intake of dairy products for adult men in Example 8.6.
 Figure 8.10 shows the sampling distributions for based on
random samples for a normal distribution with n = 5, 20, and 80.


©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
x
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Figure 8.8 Twenty confidence intervals for the
mean for Example 8.6
Example 8.7
Construct a 99% confidence interval for the mean daily intake of
dairy products for adult men in Example 8.6.
Solution
To change the confidence level to .99, you must find the
appropriate value of the standard normal z that puts area
(1 ÷ o ) = .99 in the center of the curve. This value, with tail area
o / 2 = .005 to its right, is found from Table 8.2 to be z = 2.58.
The 99% confidence interval is then

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
|
.
|

\
|
±
n
s
x 58 . 2
) 95 . 4 ( 58 . 2 756 ±
77 . 12 756 ±
Large-Sample Confidence Interval for a
Population Proportion p
- When the sample size is large, the sample proportion,


- The sampling distribution is approximately normal, with mean
p and standard error
A (1÷ o )100% Large-Sample Confidence Interval
for a Population Proportion p


where z
o

/

2
is the z-value corresponding to an area o / 2 in the
right tail of a standard normal z distribution. Estimate p and q
with Sample size is considered large when np > 5 and
nq > 5.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
trials of number Total
successes of number Total
ˆ = =
n
x
p
. / SE n pq =
n
pq
z p
2 /
ˆ
o
±
. ˆ and ˆ q p
8.6 Estimating the Difference
Between Two Population Means
 Table 8.3 shows how the estimates of the population
parameters are calculated from the sample data.
Properties of the Sampling Distribution of ,
the Difference Between Two Sample Means:
 When independent random sample of n
1
and n
2
have been
selected from populations with means µ
1
and µ
2
and variances,
respectively, the sampling distribution of the
differences has the following properties:
1. The mean and the standard error of are
and



©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
) (
2 1
x x ÷
( )
2 1
x x ÷
2 1
) (
2 1
µ µ µ ÷ =
÷x x
2
2
2
1
2
1
) (
2 1
SE
n n
x x
o o
o + = =
÷
, and
2
2
2
1
o o
( )
2 1
x x ÷
2. If the sampled populations are normally distributed, then the
sampling distribution of is exactly normally
distributed, regardless of the sample size.
3. If the sampled populations are not normally distributed, then
the sampling distribution of is approximately
normally distributed when n
1
and n
2
are large, due to the
CLT.
 Since µ
1
÷ µ
2
is the mean of the sampling distribution,
is an unbiased estimator of (µ
1
÷ µ
2
)

with an approximately
normal distribution.
 The statistic


has an approximately standard normal z distribution.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
( )
2 1
x x ÷
( )
2 1
x x ÷
2 1
x x ÷
( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 1
n n
x x
z
o o
µ µ
+
÷ ÷ ÷
=
Point Estimation of (µ
1
÷ µ
2
) :
Point estimator:
Margin of error:

 If are unknown, but both n
1
and n
2
are 30 or
more, you can use the sample variances to estimate

A (1÷o )100% Confidence Interval for (µ
1
÷ µ
2
) :

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
2 1
x x ÷
2
2
2
1
2
1
96 . 1 SE 96 . 1
n n
o o
+ ± = ±
2
2
2
1
ando o
( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 /
2 1
n n
z x x
o o
o
+ ± ÷
2
2
2
1
ands s
. and
2
2
2
1
o o
 If are unknown, they can be approximated by the
sample variances and the approximate confidence
interval is



 Example 8.9 illustrates the calculation of confidence intervals.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 /
2 1
n
s
n
s
z x x + ± ÷
o
2
2
2
1
ando o
2
2
2
1
ands s
Example 8.9
The wearing qualities of two types of automobile tires were
compared by road-testing samples of n
1
= n
2
= 100 tires for each
type. The number of miles until wearout was defined as a
specific amount of tire wear. The test results are given in Table
8.4. Estimate ( µ
1
÷ µ
2
), the difference in mean miles to
wearout, using a 99% confidence interval. Is there a difference
in the average wearing quality for the two types of tires?
Solution
The point estimate of ( µ
1
÷ µ
2
) is

and the standard error of is



©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
( )
2 1
x x ÷
miles 4 . 184 000 , 34
100
000 , 960 , 1
100
000 , 440 , 1
SE
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
= =
+ = + ~ + =
n
s
n
s
n n
o o
( ) miles 1300 100 , 25 400 , 26
2 1
÷ ÷ = ÷ x x
where are used to estimate respectively.
The 99% confidence interval is calculated as







or 824.2 < ( µ
1
÷ µ
2
) < 1775.8. The difference in the average
miles to wearout for the two types of tires is estimated to be
between LCL = 824.2 and UCL = 1775.8 miles of wear.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
58 . 2
n n
x x
o o
+ ± ÷
) 4 . 184 ( 58 . 2 1300 ±
8 . 475 1300 ±
2
2
2
1
ands s , and
2
2
2
1
o o
Based on this confidence interval, can you conclude that there
is a difference in the average miles to wearout for the two types
of tires? If there were no difference in the two population means,
then µ
1
and µ
2
would be equal and ( µ
1
÷ µ
2
) = 0.

If you look at
the confidence interval you constructed, you will see that 0 is not
one of the possible values for ( µ
1
÷ µ
2
). Therefore, it is not likely
that the means are the same; you can conclude that there is a
difference in the average miles to wearout for the two types of
tires. The confidence interval has allowed you to make a
decision about the equality of the two population means.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
 The sampling distribution of




has a standard normal distribution for all sample sizes when
both sampled populations are normal and an approximate
standard normal distribution when the sampled populations
are not normal but the sample sizes are large (greater than or
equal to 30).
 When are not known and are estimated by the
sample estimated by the sample estimates
the resulting statistic will also have an approximate standard
normal distribution when the sample sizes are large.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 1
n n
x x
o o
µ µ
+
÷ ÷ ÷
, and
2
2
2
1
s s
2
2
2
1
ando o
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
8.7 Estimating the Difference
Between Two Binomial Proportions
Properties of the Sampling Distribution of the Difference
Between Two Sample Proportions:
 Assume that independent random samples of n
1
and n
2

observations have been selected from binomial populations with
parameters p

1
and p
2

, respectively. The sampling distribution of
the difference between sample proportions

has these properties:
1. The mean and the standard error of are



( )
2 1
ˆ ˆ p p ÷
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = ÷
2
2
1
1
2 1
ˆ ˆ
n
x
n
x
p p
2
2 2
1
1 1
) ˆ ˆ ( 2 1 ) ˆ ˆ (
2 1 2 1
SE and
n
q p
n
q p
p p
p p p p
+ = = ÷ =
÷ ÷
o µ
( )
2 1
ˆ ˆ p p ÷
2. The sampling distribution of can be approximated
by a normal distribution when n
1
and n
2
are large, due to
the CLT.

 Although the range of a single proportion is from 0 to 1, the
difference between two proportions ranges from ÷1 to +1.
 To use a normal distribution to approximate the distribution of
, both p
1
and p
2
should be approximately normal;
that is


Point estimation of
Point estimator:

Margin of error :
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
5 , 5 and 5 , 5
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
> > > > q n p n q n p n
: ) (
2 1
p p ÷
2
2 2
1
1 1
96 . 1 SE 96 . 1
n
q p
n
q p
+ ± = ±
( )
2 1
ˆ ˆ p p ÷
( )
2 1
ˆ ˆ p p ÷
( )
2 1
ˆ ˆ p p ÷
 Note: The estimates must be substituted for p
1
,
p
2
, q
1
, and q
2
to estimate the margin of error.

A (1÷o ) 100% Large-Sample Confidence Interval for (p
1
÷ p
2
):



 Assumption: n
1
and n
2
must be sufficiently large so that the
sampling distribution of can be approximated by a
normal distribution—namely, if n
1
p
1
, p
1
q
1
, n
2
p
2
, and n
2
q
2
are
all greater than 5.
 Example 8.11 displays the calculation of a confidence interval
and the margin of error.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
2 1 2 1
ˆ and , ˆ , ˆ , ˆ q q p p
( )
2
2 2
1
1 1
2 / 2 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
n
q p
n
q p
z p p + ± ÷
o
( )
2 1
ˆ ˆ p p ÷
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
8.8 One-Sided
Confidence Bounds
 The confidence intervals discussed in Section s 8.5–8.7are
sometimes called two-sided confidence intervals because they
produce both a UCL and an LCL for the parameter of interest.
 Sometimes an experimenter needs only an upper or lower limit.
 You can construct a one-sided confidence bound for the
parameter of interest, such as µ, p, µ
1
÷ µ
2.
, or p
1
÷ µp
2
.
A (1 ÷ o)100% Lower Confidence Bound (LCB):
(Point estimator) ÷ z
o
× (Standard error of the estimator)
A (1 ÷ o)100% Upper Confidence Bound (UCB):
(Point estimator) + z
o
× (Standard error of the estimator)
 The z-value used for a (1 ÷ o)100% one-sided confidence
bound, z
o
, locates an area in a single tail of the normal
distribution.
 Figure 8.11 illustrates a z-value for a one-sided confidence
bound.
 Example 8.12 finds the 95% upper confidence bound for the
mean interest rate that a corporation will have to pay for notes.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
8.9 Choosing the Sample Size
 The total amount of relevant information in a sample is
controlled by two factors:
- The sampling plan or experimental design: the procedure for
collecting the information
- The sample size n: the amount of information you collect
 In a statistical estimation problem, the accuracy of the
estimation is measured by the margin of error or the width of the
confidence interval.
 Approximately 95% of the time in repeated sampling, the
distance between the sample mean and the population
mean µ will be less than 1.96SE.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
x
 If, for example, you want this quantity to be less than 4, then


 Solving for n, you obtain

 If you know o , the population standard deviation, you can
substitute its value into the formula and solve for n.
 If o is unknown — which is often the case — you can use the
best approximation available:
- An estimate s obtained from a previous sample
- A range estimate based on knowledge of the largest and
smallest possible measurements: o ~ Range 4
 The bound B on the error of your estimate is
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
4 96 . 1 or 4 SE 96 . 1 <
|
.
|

\
|
<
n
o
B
n
z <
|
.
|

\
|
o
o 2
2
2
24 . or
4
96 . 1
o >
|
.
|

\
|
> n n
Choosing the Sample Size:
Determine the parameter to be estimated and the standard error
of its point estimator. Then proceed as follows:
1. Choose B, the bound on the error of your estimate, and a
confidence coefficient (1÷ o).
2. For a one-sample problem, solve this equation for the sample
size n: z
o
× (Standard error of the estimator) = B
where z
o

/

2
is the value of z having area o / 2 to its right.
3. For a two-sample problem, set n
1
= n
2
= n and solve the
equation in step 2.
 Note: For most estimators (all presented in this text), the
standard error is a function of the sample size n.
 Example 8.13 determines the sample size required for a given
bound on error B and probability of error.
 Example 8.14 determines the number of workers that must be
in each training group for a given B and p.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
Example 8.13
Producers of polyvinyl plastic pipe want to have a supply of
pipes sufficient to meet marketing needs. They wish to survey
wholesalers who buy polyvinyl pipe in order to estimate the
proportion who plan to increase their purchases next year. What
sample size is required if they want their estimate to be within
.04 of the actual proportion with probability equal to .90?
Solution
For this particular example, the bound B on the error of the
estimate is .04. Since the confidence coefficient is (1÷ o ) = .90,
o must equal .10 and o / 2 is .05. The z-value corresponding to
an area equal to .05 in the upper tail of the z distribution is
z
.05
= 1.645. You then require



©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
04 . 645 . 1 or 04 . 645 . 1
ˆ
= =
n
pq
p
o
In order to solve this equation for n, you must substitute an
approximate value of p into the equation. You could use the
estimate based on the sample of n = 100; or if you want
to be certain that the sample is large enough, you could use
p = .5 (substituting p = .5 will yield the largest possible solution
for n because the maximum value of pq occurs when p = q = .5).
Substitute p =.5. Then


or


Therefore the producers must include approximately 423
wholesalers in its survey if it wants to estimate the proportion p
correct to within .04.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
59 . ˆ = p
04 .
) 5 )(. 5 (.
645 . 1 =
n
56 . 20
04 .
) 5 )(. 645 . 1 (
= = n
( ) 7 . 422 56 . 20
2
= = n
Key Concepts and Formulas
I. Types of Estimators
1. Point estimator: a single number is calculated to estimate the
population parameter.
2. Interval estimator: two numbers are calculated to form an
interval that contains the parameter.
II. Properties of Good Estimators
1. Unbiased: the average value of the estimator equals the
parameter to be estimated.
2. Minimum variance: of all the unbiased estimators, the best
estimator has a sampling distribution with the smallest standard
error.
3. The margin of error measures the maximum distance
between the estimator and the true value of the parameter.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
III. Large-Sample Point Estimators
To estimate one of four population parameters when the sample
sizes are large, use the following point estimators with the
appropriate margins of error.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
IV. Large-Sample Interval Estimators
To estimate one of four population parameters when the sample
sizes are large, use the following interval estimators.

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
1. All values in the interval are possible values for the unknown
population parameter.
2. Any values outside the interval are unlikely to be the value of
the unknown parameter.
3. To compare two population means or proportions, look for the
value 0 in the confidence interval. If 0 is in the interval, it is
possible that the two population means or proportions are
equal, and you should not declare a difference. If 0 is not in
the interval, it is unlikely that the two means or proportions
are equal, and you can confidently declare a difference.

V. One-Sided Confidence Bounds
Use either the upper (+) or lower (÷) two-sided bound, with the
critical value of z changed from z
o

/

2
to z
o
.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
VI. Choosing the Sample Size
1. Determine the size of the margin of error, B, that you are
willing to tolerate.
2. Choose the sample size by solving for n or n = n
1
= n
2
in the
inequality: 1.96 SE s B, where SE is a function of the sample
size n.
3. For quantitative populations, estimate the population standard
deviation using a previously calculated value of s or the range
approximation o ~ Range / 4.
4. For binomial populations, use the conservative approach and
approximate p using the value p = .5.
©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP

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