ANALISA MENGENAI PENGELOLAAN KAWASAN DASAR LAUT OLEH NAURU OCEAN RESOURCES INC

1. The International Seabed Authority and the Nauru Ocean Resources Inc. signed a 15-year contract for prospecting and exploration for polymetallic nodules by the corporation in a specified reserved area of the deep oceans outside the limits of national jurisdiction. 2. The application area of Nauru Ocean Resources Inc. covers a total of 74,830 km in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone of the Pacific Ocean. The area lies within the reserved areas and is divided into four regions. 3. The cost of exploration will be supported by Nauru Republic

Apakah kegiatan eksplorsi yng dilakukan oleh Nauru Ocean Resources Inc. Yang disponsori oleh Republik Nauru bertentangan dengan prinsip common interest of mankind?

1. “AREA”: "Area" means the sea-bed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction (Art. 1(1) LOSC); To the outer edge of continental margin, or to a distance 200 miles from the baseline where the margin does not extent up to that distance

Penampakan wilayah lautan

Sejarah Hukum

UN General Assembly 1967 (Dr. Avid Pardo, Dubes Malta)

Declaration and Treaty concerning the reservation exclusively for peaceful purposes of the sea-bed and ocean floor underlying the seas beyond the present limits of national jurisdiction, and the use of their resources in the interest of mankind.”

Moratorium Resulution (Resolusi MU 2574)

No Claim to Seabed Area and all of the Resources

General Assembly Resolution 2749: . Group of 77 (Developing Countries) “Declaration of Principles Governing meminta kemudahan dan akases the Sea Bed and Ocean Floor, and the untuk mengelola seabed Subsoil Thereof, beyond the limits of National Jurisdiction” Bab XI UNCLOS 1982 •mengatur aktivitas eksploitasi dan eksplorasi •definisi “area” •Outer edge of continental margin •Common Heritage of mankind • hasilnya dipergunakan untuk manfaat umat manusia dengan

Deklarasi ini bertujuan untuk menciptakan kerjasama negaraq-negara di dunia untuk tujuan perdamaian di wilayah seabed dan menggunakan segala sumber kekayaan alam yang berada di wilayah seabed untuk tujuan sebagai harta/ warisan bersama umat manusia.

• Kekayaan yang terkandung di kawasan seabed: Aluminium, 43 milyar ton; Mangan, 350 milyar ton; Tembaga, 7,9 milyar ton; Zirconium, 1 milyar ton; Nikel, 14,7 milyar ton; Kobalt, 5,2 milyar ton; Molibdenum, 0,75 milyar ton; Di Samudera Pasifik: gumpalan nodule berisi: 207 milyar ton biji besi, 10 milyar ton titanium, 25 milyar ton magnesium, 1,3 milyar ton timah hitam, 800 milyar ton vanadium.

• Dalam pelaksanaannya didirikan ISBA • Wewenangnya untuk memberikan ijin, mengawasi dan mengontrol ekploitasi dan eksplorasi Seabed, sedangkan pemasangan kabel dan pipa bawah laut serta penelitian tidak berhubungan dengan ISBA

Analisa Kasus
• Dalam ISBA 17/C/9 mengenai Report and recommendations to the Council of the International Seabed Authority relating to an application for the approval of a plan of work for exploration by Nauru Ocean Resources Inc. Dinyatakan mengenai komitmen Nauru Ocean Resources Inc mengenai pendistribusian hasil dari eksplorasi, yaitu:

• The Nauru Education and Training Foundation and the Nauru Health and Environment Foundation are controlled by Nauru and will distribute within the State the income the company received from mineral production in the Licence Area. • The Nauru Education and Training Foundation will distribute its share of the income to promote education and capacity-building in Nauru, while the Nauru Environment Foundation will use its share for health services and environmental rehabilitation in Nauru.

Daftar Pustaka
• Jack N. Barkenbus, The Politics of Ocean Resource Exploitation, International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 21 No. 4, 1977 • Edward Guntrip, The Common Heritage of Mankind: An Adequate Regime For Managing The Deep Seabed?, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol. 4 B. • Vijay Kumar, India And The Common Heritage Concept in the International Seabed Area, current Science, Vol. 86, No. 6, 25 March 2004 • A.O. Adede, The System For Exploitation of The ‘Common Heritage of Mankind’ At the Caracas Conference, The American Journal of International Law, Vol 69. 1975 • Philip Allott, Power Sharing In the Law of the Sea, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 77, 1983

• ISBA/14/LTC/L.2 • ISBA/17/C/9 • UNCLOS 1982

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