Formation Pressure

Baker Hughes INTEQ Surface Logging Systems

WELCOME!!
To The FORMATION PRESSURE EVALUATION COURSE 5 Fun Filled Days with Exam!
4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 1

Formation Pressure
Course Objectives ...
1. To COMMUNICATE. 2. To collect DATA. 3. To recognise TRENDS. 4. To evaluate PRESSURE. 5. And ...

... develop a plan to be able to undertake pressure evaluation anywhere!

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Formation Pressure
Course Outline
Day One : • • • • • Introduction Communication Basic Terminology Hydrostatic & ECD Overburden Day Three : • Fracture Pressure Gradient • Casing Seat Placement • Basic Well Control Day Four : Day Two : • Predict Exercise • What is Pore Pressure? Day Five: • Origins of Abnormal Pressure • Pressure Evaluation • Final Exam

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Formation Pressure Day One Objectives : • Introduction • The Plan • Communication • Become familiar with • Basic Terminology • Hydrostatic & ECD • Overburden 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 4 .

Formation Pressure INTRODUCTION 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 5 .

Note: If you learn the flow diagram you can get through the course very easily and undertake pressure evaluation anywhere! You don’t need a computer just the ability to undertake a few simple exercises with a calculator! 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 6 .Formation Pressure The Plan In the beginning there is a Plan … … and the Plan is best shown as a flow diagram.

Formation Pressure The Plan (1) Overburden Pressure (Rock Properties) • Density Logs • Porosity Logs • Regional Curves • Equations • Rock Cuttings Density ROCK BULK DENSITY rb Overburden Pressure “S” in psi. Overburden Gradient “S” / TVD from rkb 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 7 . bars. atm.

Kicks.Formation Pressure The Plan • Offset Well Data • Rw Catalogues • Resistivity Logs • Bucket on a Rope PORE WATER DENSITY “S” (from 1) rf (2) Pore Pressure Normal Hydrostatic Pr. bars. Estimated Pore Pressure and FB Gradient (Fluid Properties) Formation Balance Gradient (“P” / TVD from flowline) (“P” / TVD from water level) MINIMUM STATIC MUD DENSITY 8 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School . Flows. atm Normal Pore Pr. etc. Temp. Elogs. Dxc. Gradient Gas. Normal Pore Pressure “P” in psi.

Formation Pressure The Plan (3) Fracture Pressure “S” (from 1) “P” (from 2) Estimated Fracture Pressure at Any Depth Rock Cuttings Poisson’s Ratio “u” Tectonic stress LEAK OFF TEST Maximum Dynamic Mud Pressure & Maximum Shut-in Casing Pressure Kick Tolerance 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 9 .

. To give employees the knowledge for drilling safe wellbores in the window between Minimum Static Mud Density and Maximum Dynamic Mud Pressure 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 10 .Formation Pressure The Plan The aim of this Plan and part of the aim of this Course ..

4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 11 .Formation Pressure Introduction • Abnormal formation pressures occur in most sedimentary basins worldwide.

Formation Pressure Introduction • Abnormal formation pressures occur in most sedimentary basins worldwide. – They occur at all depths. – They occur in all geologic age formations. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 12 .

4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 13 .Formation Pressure Introduction • Abnormal formation pressures occur in most sedimentary basins worldwide. – A third to a half of all wells drilled experience abnormal pressures. – They occur at all depths. – They occur in all geologic age formations.

4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 14 .Formation Pressure Introduction • Understanding formation pressures is important for several reasons – Minimize drilling costs due to lost time and equipment problems through ...

Formation Pressure Introduction • Understanding formation pressures is important for several reasons – Minimize drilling costs due to lost time and equipment problems through • Well kicks and blowouts CHING! CHING! 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 15 .

Formation Pressure Introduction • Understanding formation pressures is important for several reasons – Minimize drilling costs due to lost time and equipment problems through • Well kicks and blowouts • Stuck pipe CHING! CHING! CHING! 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 16 .

Formation Pressure Introduction • Understanding formation pressures is important for several reasons – Minimize drilling costs due to lost time and equipment problems through • Well kicks and blowouts • Stuck pipe • Lost circulation CHING! CHING! CHING! CHING! 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 17 .

Formation Pressure Introduction • Understanding formation pressures is important for several reasons – Minimize drilling costs due to lost time and equipment problems through • Well kicks and blowouts • Stuck pipe • Lost circulation – Ensure rig personnel safety. – Minimize loss of reserves. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 18 . – Stop environmental pollution.

When a well is drilled there are several kinds of pressure that must be considered.Formation Pressure Introduction • The evaluation of formation pressure is critical for well planning and completion. • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 19 .

Formation Pressure Introduction • The evaluation of formation pressure is critical for well planning and completion. – Overburden pressure • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 20 . When a well is drilled there are several kinds of pressure that must be considered.

When a well is drilled there are several kinds of pressure that must be considered. – Overburden pressure – Formation pore pressure • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 21 .Formation Pressure Introduction • The evaluation of formation pressure is critical for well planning and completion.

– Overburden pressure – Formation pore pressure – Fracture pressure • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 22 .Formation Pressure Introduction • The evaluation of formation pressure is critical for well planning and completion. When a well is drilled there are several kinds of pressure that must be considered.

Formation Pressure
Introduction
• The evaluation of formation pressure is critical for well planning and completion. When a well is drilled there are several kinds of pressure that must be considered. – Overburden pressure – Formation pore pressure – Fracture pressure – Mud hydrostatic pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure = Vertical Depth * Mud Weight * 0.0519

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Formation Pressure
Introduction
• The evaluation of formation pressure is critical for well planning and completion. When a well is drilled there are several kinds of pressure that must be considered. – Overburden pressure – Formation pore pressure – Fracture pressure – Mud hydrostatic pressure – Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD)

Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD)

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Formation Pressure
Introduction
• To successfully drill a well to completion, a comprehensive mud and casing program must be made.

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Formation Pressure Introduction • To successfully drill a well to completion. • There must be a balance between mud hydrostatic pressure and formation pore pressure. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 26 . a comprehensive mud and casing program must be made.

Formation Pressure Introduction • To successfully drill a well to completion. • There must be a balance between mud hydrostatic pressure and formation pore pressure. a comprehensive mud and casing program must be made. • Problems that can occur – Mud hydrostatic < Formation • Kicks 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 27 .

Formation Pressure Introduction • To successfully drill a well to completion. a comprehensive mud and casing program must be made. • Problems that can occur – Mud hydrostatic < Formation • Kicks • Stuck Pipe 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 28 . • There must be a balance between mud hydrostatic pressure and formation pore pressure.

• Problems that can occur – Mud hydrostatic < Formation • Kicks • Stuck Pipe – Mud hydrostatic > Formation • Lost Circulation 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 29 . a comprehensive mud and casing program must be made. • There must be a balance between mud hydrostatic pressure and formation pore pressure.Formation Pressure Introduction • To successfully drill a well to completion.

Formation Pressure COMMUNICATION 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 30 .

yet.... 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 31 ..Formation Pressure Pressure Evaluation What Data Will You Be Given To Assist You? • Hopefully as much as possible! • When in doubt ask for more!! • If the Client is serious about having you perform a high quality pressure evaluation they should be as helpful as possible.. You should NOT need a crystal ball .

Geology . salinity etc. size. sonic. volume. dxc. pump pressure etc.drill rate. Drilling fluid . MWD / LWD / PWD . temperature.Formation Pressure Pressure Evaluation Tools • Prior to drilling – – – – Surface geophysical Regional geology Seismic Offset data • After drilling – Wireline logs – Pressure tests – Data analysis • While drilling – – – – Drilling parameters . torque. resistivity.gamma ray. shape.shale density. pit volume. density etc.gas. shale factor etc Formation Pressure Evaluation School 32 4/21/2013 .

Formation Pressure Communication Who? Why? When? 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 33 .

. – Mudlogger / Geologist – Mud Engineer – MWD Engineer – Driller – Derrick Hand / Shaker Hand – Company Man / Drilling Engineer – Your Relief – Your Coordinator 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 34 .Formation Pressure Who and Why? • Everyone associated with the drilling process ..

. but prepare to be wrong – Get second opinions when necessary – Write things down! 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 35 ..Formation Pressure When? • In a timely manner – There should be constant communication – Communicate when conditions are normal – Communicate when you suspect a problem And remember to . – Never ignore changes in trends – Report everything.

Formation Pressure TERMINOLOGY 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 36 .

Formation Pressure Formation Pressure Terminology • Hydrostatic Pressure – The pressure exerted at any point in a static fluid column • Overburden Pressure – Pressure of the weight of overlying sediments and fluids • Pore Pressure – Pressure exerted by the formation fluids • Formation Balance Gradient – Mud density needed to balance the pore pressure • Fracture Pressure – The pressure needed for hydraulic fracturing to occur 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 37 .

0981 = sg 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 38 .Formation Pressure Formation Pressure Terminology • Equivalent Circulating Density – Density of the mud while being pumped • Pressure Gradients – pressure divided by TVD & measured in psi/ft or bars/m • Equivalent Mud Weight or Density – pressure gradient measured in ppg or gm/cc – note that gm/cc and specific gravity (sg) are used interchangeably psi/ft / 0.052 = ppg bar/m / 0.

090 psi/ft 2500 5000 0 4/21/2013 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Pressure 39 Formation Pressure Evaluation School .465 psi/ft 0.Formation Pressure Pressure Gradients Depth Gas Gradient Oil Gradient Water Gradient “Normal” Formation Gradient 10ppg Mud Gradient 15ppg Mud Gradient 21ppg Mud Gradient 0.30 psi/tf 0.433 psi/ft 0.519 psi/ft 0.779 psi/ft 1.07 psi/ft 0.

C.D.Formation Pressure HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AND E. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 40 .

bar/m / 0. Pr. Pr. (psi) = TVD (ft) * Fluid Density (ppg) * 0.0981 = ppg = sg True vertical depths should be used in all pressure calculations.0519 Hyd. (bar) = TVD (m) * Fluid Density (sg) * 0. (psi) / TVD (ft) Gradient (bar/m) = Hyd. Mud depths should be referenced from the flowline.psi/ft / 0.0981 • The hydrostatic pressure gradient will be Gradient (psi/ft) = Hyd. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 41 . (bar) / TVD (m) .0519 . Pr. Pr.Formation Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure • The pressure exerted by a static column of fluid Hyd.

000 ft Hydrostatic Pressure: MW * TVD * 0. Mud Weight =10.000 ft Measured Depth =10.Formation Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure • The normal hydrostatic pressure of a formation depends solely on the pore water density and the true vertical depth. • The mud hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted at any point by the mud column.0519 = 5190 psi 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 42 .00 lb/gal Vertical Depth =10.

0519 = 3633 psi 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 43 . • The mud hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted at any point by the mud column.00 lb/gal Vertical Depth =7.Formation Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure • The normal hydrostatic pressure of a formation depends solely on the pore water density and the true vertical depth. Mud Weight =10.000 ft Hydrostatic Pressure: MW * TVD * 0.000 ft Measured Depth =10.

Formation Pressure Hydrostatic & Pore Pressure • • Normal hydrostatic pressure = Normal pore pressure Quite simply pore pressure is the pressure exerted by pore fluids which reflect the water density in the basin of deposition • Non-marine • • • • Brackish Open marine Partially restricted marine or saline Very restricted marine or hypersaline Normal pore pressure can be anywhere between 8.34 ppg and 9.00 ppg 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 44 .

Formation Pressure Hydrostatic & Pore Pressure • Balanced Situation : Mud Hydrostatic = Pore Pressure • see “Minimum Static MW” in the “Plan” • Underbalanced : Mud Hydrostatic < Pore Pressure • kicks / sloughing / fast drilling / stuck pipe • Overbalanced : Mud Hydrostatic > Pore Pressure • fluid loss / fracturing / slow drilling / stuck pipe 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 45 .

To be balanced. Mud Pore Fluid • Mud Hydrostatic = Pore Fluid Hydrostatic 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 46 . both arms need to have the same pressure.Formation Pressure Formation Balance Gradient The U-Tube & J-Tube Effect • Consider that the formation and the annulus form a utube.

The Formation Balance Gradient is the mud weight needed to balance pore fluids when considering the j-tube effect. Air Gap Mud Pore Fluid Mud Hydrostatic = Pore Fluid Hydrostatic 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 47 .Formation Pressure Formation Balance Gradient The U-Tube & J-Tube Effect • • Flowline Most rigs can be considered to be j-tubes.

Formation Pressure Equivalent Circulating Density • The ECD is the apparent density of the mud while circulating.00 lb/gal • • • The ECD is typically greatest at the bottom of the hole. Annular losses are affected by – Mud rheology – Hole size & pipe geometry – Flow rate & annular velocity Mud Weight =10. Formation Pressure Evaluation School Circulating mud creates pressure losses against the hole wall Pressure losses add to the mud hydrostatic. 4/21/2013 48 . Annular pressure losses due to frictional effects increase the apparent density. ECD is typically greatest at the bottom of the wellbore.

Formation Pressure OVERBURDEN PRESSURE 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 49 .

It is a function of the vertical depth and density of the rock column. The prior calculation of overburden pressure is critical for the accurate determination of pore and fracture pressures.Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure • Overburden pressure is the pressure at any point in the formation exerted by the total weight of the overlying sediments. • • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 50 .

Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure • Overburden calculation needs the following data to be input – fluid density (offshore) Measure fluid density offshore 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 51 .

Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure • Overburden calculation needs the following data to be input – fluid density (offshore) – formation bulk density Measure bulk density of formations 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 52 .

Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure • Overburden pressure needs the following data to be input – fluid density (offshore) – formation bulk density – true vertical depth Measure vertical depth to point of interest. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 53 .

Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure • Overburden pressure needs the following data to be input – fluid density (offshore) – formation bulk density – true vertical depth • Onshore. overburden pressure is calculated from ground level. TVD 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 54 .

overburden pressure is calculated from sea level. Offshore.Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure • Overburden pressure needs the following data to be input – fluid density (offshore) – formation bulk density – true vertical depth • • • Onshore. TVD 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 55 . Overburden gradient is calculated from the drill floor. overburden pressure is calculated from ground level.

0 and 1. x 0.0981 Where : S = Overburden pressure (psi or bars) pb = bulk density (gm/cc or s.0519 S(bar) = pb(sg) * tvd(m) * 0. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 56 .433 is best not used due to inaccuracies in wells shallower than 6000m.Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure • • • Overburden is variable.08 gm/cc • Overburden pressure is calculated with : S(psi) = pb(ppg) * tvd(ft) * 0.g.6 and 3.2 gm/cc Fluid densities vary between 1. Sediment densities vary between 1.g. or ppg) tvd = interval depth or length (ft or m) NOTE: The equation in the manual : S(psi) = tvd(ft) x density s.

739 / 0.052 = 7. – (300 * 8.375 / 0.0 psi – 135.9 * 0.9 2500ft Formation Pressure Evaluation School 57 4/21/2013 .3 2200ft 20.0 / 700 = 0.21 ppg 0 8.0 psi – 407.9 1500ft • sandstone limestone 20.18 ppg At 1500 ft.0 – 1108.581 psi/ft – 0.21 ppg At 700 ft.052 = 14.739 psi/ft – 0.4 * 0.0519) + 135.Formation Pressure OBG Calculation air water clay • • 60ft 360ft At 60ft = 0 psi At 360 ft.67 * 0.0519) + 407.67 15. – (340 * 15.4 • 700ft shale 16.0 / 1500 = 0.0 – 407.0519) + 0 – 135.052 = 11.0 / 360 = 0.375 psi/ft – 0.581 / 0.0 psi – 1108. – (800 * 16.

Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure Data • The basic data needed is bulk density. • Sources of bulk density data include : – – – – – – Drilled cuttings Density wireline and MWD logs Sonic wireline and MWD logs Regional tables and curves Equations Seismic velocity data 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 58 .

Drilled Cuttings Using a Mud Balance (Pyncometer Method) • • • • • • • • Grab some fresh cuttings Remove obvious cavings Clean off mud Dry slightly on paper towel Be consistent Put cuttings in the balance until it reads 8.34 ppg. Fill the cup with fresh water and weigh again = (W2) Calculate bulk density : pb (gm/cc) = 8.34 / (16.W2) 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 59 .68 .Formation Pressure OBG Data .

Density Logs • • • • • MWD and wireline density logs contain bulk density data that can be read directly from the log. Density log data is superior to density from drilled cuttings data or sonic log data but unfortunately it is not commonly run in all hole sections.Formation Pressure OBG Data . Allowance needs to be made for the effects that can distort density data such as gas filled pores . • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 60 . Density logs only have a small depth of investigation (2-6 inches) Caution has to be taken when reading the logs due to washouts in the hole. logging speed etc.density reduction. mixed lithologies. Logging companies will apply correction factors for the above.

HIGH LOW • Normal Trend for Sonic (dt) with normal compaction. Delta t is measured in usecs/ft.Formation Pressure OBG Data .Sonic Logs • • • • Sonic logs register the Transit Time (delta t) of a formation. The delta t for a particular rock is a measure of its porosity Lower transit times = faster acoustic velocity = lower porosity = higher density With depth and normal compaction density should increase. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 61 .

Formation Pressure OBG Data . pick broad lithology intervals Ignore beds less than 50ft thick Eyeball an average delta t over the lithology interval or .. 1/4’s if necessary Calculate delta t : delta t = #tics * 1000 / interval 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 62 .Sonic Logs The procedure • • • • Using Gamma Ray or SP. Calculate the average delta t using Integrated Transit Time tics • • • Each tic = 1000 usecs/ft Count the tics over the interval use 1/2’s..

Dt Matrix) / (Dt + Dt Fluid)] Where : pb = bulk density Dt = transit time from log DtMatrix = transit time of rock DtFluid = transit time of fluid 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 63 .[(2.11 * (Dt .75 .Sonic Logs • AGIP’s Bellotti.Formation Pressure OBG Data . DiLorenza and Giacca (1978) developed an equation to calculate bulk density from Sonic logs : pb = 2.

23) B = Exponent (typically 0.25) 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 64 .Formation Pressure OBG Data .Sonic Logs • Gardener’s Sonic Equation (used in Predict) was also developed to calculate bulk density from Sonic logs : pb = A * ( 10^6 / Dt )^B Where : pb = bulk density Dt = transit time from log A = Coefficient (typically 0.

4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 65 . Other data obtained during the drilling phase should be used to compare and correct this initial curve. Seismic velocity can be converted to usec/ft and treated as you would Sonic data: Transit Time (usec/ft) = (1/vint) * 1. Even from the sparsest of data the pressure engineer should be able to produce a fairly reasonable overburden curve prior to drilling.lowers the values.000 • • • Data taken around salt domes will not be reliable due to the effect salt has on sound waves .Seismic Data • • Seismic data can be used to calculate bulk density. Try to get a "shallow" seismic study to check for existing faults.000.Formation Pressure OBG Data .

72 (usec/ft) = (1/7157) * 1.000 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 66 .3008 2.000.3292 2.000.000 139.3152 2.2672 2.3452 8272 5684 6217 6909 7157 6242 Transit Time (usec/ft) = (1/vint) * 1.Seismic Data • Seismic data may look something like this: subsea depth two-way time velocity interval 6618 6668 6718 6768 6818 6868 2.2846 2.Formation Pressure OBG Data .

Curves and Tables • • • Many areas have regional curves based on known data. Problems arise when data is used outside the specific region. • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 67 .Formation Pressure OBG Data . This can make a vast difference in overburden. Make corrections for water depth. Even within the area water depth corrections must be made. • Remember to always question offset data and make sure it is not TOO offset by structure or distance.

97E-9(D^2)+6.Air Gap) / 3125 ] ^0.82) D = True vertical depth (ft) • • Another equation comes from Amoco/Chevron This equation approximates sediment bulk density (OBG will have to be calculated from these densities) : pb = 16.3 + [ (TVD . Deep=0.97E-19(D^4) Where: OGO = Overburden gradient offset (Land=0.60E-14(D^3)-5.85.Water Depth . Shallow=0.Formation Pressure OBG Data .6 (Note : 16.87.64E-5(D)-1.Equations • Bryant (1989) came up with the following equation to calculate the overburden gradient for Tertiary basins : OBG = OGO+2.3 is the estimated weight of sediments at the mudline) 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 68 .

With the reasonable offset data. sonic. This can then be corrected as drilling progresses and more data is acquired. etc. and density data. You should not wait until the first casing point. Steps to creating your curve: 1) Use equations or data provided 2) Use cuttings data to modify 3) Use e-log data at casing points 4) Continue to use cuttings.Formation Pressure Overburden Pressure . This is the curve that all other pressure work depends on. 5) Check curve with LOT’s 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 69 . an overburden curve can be made even before a foot of formation is drilled.Conclusion • • • The generation of an overburden curve cannot be ignored.

6 12.67 1. The Bell equation needs to use an OB Offset based on w ater depth.08 2.0 850.75 1.7 15.9 242.9 110.1 feet 728.45 1.850 Sand dt Silt dt Shale dt Sea dt Fresh dt 50 48 47 190 210 The OBG from Amoco uses the bulk density equation w hich is used in "Predict" .06 2.1 10.6 13.99 2.0 1400.0 m etres 1.32 1.8 890.05 2.4 9.6 2188.3 13.0 15.3 3067.1 191.900 0.6 2624.3 15.79 1.79 1.06 2.04 2.88 1.825 0.8 150.99 2.01 2.86 1.0 1250.0 48 2.1 12.82 1.00 1.07 2.1 252.1 14.10 466.0 4101.7 2952.1 14.9 171.9 3510.07 2.1 91.08 2.3 2920.0 1200.5 2296.01 2.0 350.90 1.5 12.76 1.10 150.7 3116.01 2.58 1.96 1.80 1.1 41.8 140.98 1.81 1.1 4593.2 15.0 1.0 181. These are estimates only! OBG Am oco OBG (sg) (ppg) (sg) OBG Bell (ppg) (sg) Well .2 11.84 1.0 1300.0 13.7 13.71 1.9 15.45 1.4 1.0 550.1 300.4 1804.77 1.21 1.4 feet 8.9 13.7 13.0 500.88 1.02 2.90 1.5 1968.55 1.69 1.39 1.6 2460.12 1.8 130.2 14.0 4265.02 2.31/7 : Grossenschmuck : Celtic Petroleum OBG Used For Analysis TVD (ft) TVD (m ) pB Am oco pB Cutting dt Sonic dt Matrix pB Sonic pB Used OBP (psi) OBP (bar) OBG (ppg) 984.05 2.73 1.81 1.3 1476.5 13.1 10.77 1.0 11.Bideford .62 1.71 1.22 1.06 2.7 14.09 1.3 14.71 1.02 2.2 2334.9 15.2 16.9 14.5 13.92 1.90 1.0 750.8 14.74 1.6 2773.05 2.6 14.7 ppg Overburden Pressure Calculations 29.67 1.7 14.05 2.97 1.07 2.1 32.22 1.82 1.03 2.81 1.0 1150.3 607.6 12.98 1.08 2.0 700.6 12.0 900.83 1.51 1.0 100.73 1.7 231.38 1.08 2.04 2.1 15.0 1350.0 m etres 222.9 14.01 2.97 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 70 .79 1.90 1.3 16.09 1.5 15.02 2.08 2.0 800.9 16.8 3444.8 3280.07 2.39 1.2 15.3 211.0 1100.0 950.0 1000.84 9.1 15.3 81.5 1.5 1319.4 14.08 1.7 14.03 2.0 1050.1 12.9 51.9 3772.6 12.09 1.6 3215.83 1.8 1608.0 2480.3 15.0 600.07 2.0 650.9 1033.58 1.85 2.2 13.80 1.6 14.8 14.7 2788.3 1148.45 1.5 1897.1 12.64 1.1 4429.1 3362.0 1752.0 15.60 1.76 1.9 15.0 400.55 1.9 120.0 450.Formation Pressure Formation Pressure Worksheet Air Gap Water Depth Norm al PP 95.64 1.67 1.6 61.2 11.1 10.9 160.3 15.97 1.4 2042.2 201.55 1.5 221.9 3937.06 2.9 13.9 1463.32 1.76 1.0 16.08 2.84 9.00 2.95 1.2 13.1 15.1 2626.9 3608.03 2.2 748.04 sg OB Offsets: Land Shelf Deep 0.0 11.4 1640.04 2.00 2.4 71.90 2.5 14.7 14.9 11.04 2.94 1.4 14.69 1.1 10.4 1.3 14.62 1.5 2132.50 1.64 1.07 2.5 1176.75 1.9 3660.51 1.03 2.30 1.3 1312.0 14.

0 800.0 3200.0 3300.0 2700.70 0.70 1.0 2900.0 500.0 2100.50 1.50 0.0 3000.0 3100.0 1700.30 2.0 2200.0 1200.10 2.50 depth m.0 2800.0 100.0 1100.90 1.0 2500.0 1800.0 2300.90 2.0 1400.0 2600.0 1300.0 400.0 900.0 0.0 600.0 700.10 1.0 2000.0 200.0 1600.0 2400.g.0 1000.0 300.0 3400.0 1500. 0. OBG Used For Analysis OBG Amoco OBG Bell 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 71 .Formation Pressure obg s.30 1.0 1900.

g. as the water density. Calculate the overburden gradient in EMW. Select Sonic transit time data points every 100 meters. Calculate the bulk density using Gardener’s equation.03 s. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 72 . • • Use 1.Formation Pressure Day One : Homework : OBG • • • • Use the Bideford 31/7 well logs. Use the Amoco equation to calculate bulk density values every 100 meters from the seafloor to the top of the first sonic data point.