Well Planning Presentation 6

Fred E. Dupriest
Technical Operations Support

DRILLING TECHNICIAN SCHOOL
ExxonMobil Development Company Houston, Texas 2004

Learning Objectives and Outline /Overview

Step 1: Establish team Step 2: Collect and Display Well Data

Step 3: Select casing setting depths
Step 4: Select casing sizes and configuration Step 5: Determine the directional profile

Step 6: Optimize performance
Step 7: Eliminate Invisible Time Step 8: Other design/operational issues

Detailed Designs Not Covered
• Mud program • Bit selection • Cement design • Wellhead and tubulars • Well control equipment • Formation evaluation • Rig analysis / specification

• Site and regulatory issues
• Environmental and industrial hygiene • Shallow hazards study • Risk assessment

These topics are covered in separate lectures.

Step 1: Establish Team .

Characteristics of High-Performing Teams • High-performing teams have an inclusive culture – Everyone knows and agrees on the important objectives – People listen to each other and express themselves – Disagreements are resolved through logical discussion – Don’t withdraw under stress • Team leaders exhibit team behaviors and achieve it in others by setting the right example • Team behaviors lead to better decisions and execution. but a sense of individual responsibility must be maintained .

Step 2: Collect and communicate well data .

Well Planning Package • Well Planning Data is an OIMS Element 3 requirement • Obtain well requirements from client in writing • Exact content is not specified by OIMS and varies between groups • The most critical element is the Bottom Hole Pressure sheet. . Do not drill a well without a bottom hole pressure sheet.

Bottom Hole Pressure Sheet • Confirm that offset pressures are recent • Obtain estimates of the draw down at your location (not the pressure at the offset well) • Plan sufficient overbalance to allow tripping without swabbing • Adjust MW for structural position (the shallower you drill the formation. the higher the MW required) .

0 ppg 10.0)(10500)(.052)-(2.0 ppg) 16.0 ppg is required at 10.7 ppg Gas Column (2.0)(500)(. what MW is required at 10.000 ft? (16.052) ??? ppg 10.Adjusting MW for Structural Position Well #2 Well #1 If 16.500 ft Water Column .000 ft = 16.052) (10000)(.500 ft.

Collect Useful Offset Data • Infield well data – – – – – Well files • Daily Reports • Stick Charts • Procedures (trouble mitigation) Follow-up reports Field studies Scouting information Log headers .

The service company will build their experience into the plan. • Published offset performance data – SPE and other Trade Journals – Government publications .Collect Useful Offset Data • Non-proprietary service company data – – – Bit records Mud records Directional drilling summary reports – Request a design proposal.

Industry Database (PetroConsultants) .

Partner Data – Project proposals and well planning meetings – Detailed drilling procedures – Daily surveillance and partner meetings • Corporate memory – Who drilled the last well? – Who drilled the best well? .Collect Useful Offset Data .Cont’d • EMDC Drilling OBO Group .

Start with Corporate Information and ask for the Drilling Group .Collect Useful Well Data • Direct contact with offset operators – Inform client organization of proposed contact – Follow legal guidelines established by local management – Be prepared to exchange data similar to what you’re requesting – The drilling engineer you want can usually be located with 3 phone calls.

depth Cross-section Structural maps • Graphs – – • Geologic Data – – – Annotated logs . depth Mud weight vs.Displaying Data • Morning Reports – – DRS or Hard Copies on Rig Stick charts Days vs.

11.748’ P&A 10.1 ppg.330’ – Sands at 13 . mud losses while logging = 2-3 bbl/run.600 – Core 30’.100’ .Stick Charts KR Laguna Larga 20 2750 ft to West. no shows mentioned 9 ppg no problems 9.6 ppg.2 ppg mud cut to 16. probable cause of LC below.580’ 9 ppg 13-3/8” @ 2.0 ppg 17. 12. drilled Jan 1976 no problems.8 ppg 17. drilled Oct 1988 KR Laguna Larga 13 4200 ft to South.267 – DP twisted off. 89% recovery.5 ppg 10 ppg 11 ppg 11.575’. lost returns with 17. 10. recovered.5 ppg TD = 8. 11.120 – Core 38’. no actual flows multiple gas shows.8 ppg 17 ppg mud gas cut to 16 ppg 7-5/8” liner @ 10.14 ppg.0 ppg 9-5/8” @ 8. 90% recovery. no gas 9 ppg 8-5/8” @ 1.5 ppg multiple gas shows.0 ppg 17.998’ PIT=19 ppg multiple gas shows 16.7.593’ – Well kicked with 17.4 ppg oil show @ 7.2 ppg no problems reported.8 ppg 5” x 5-1/2” @ 12.8 ppg gas shows.10. Spotted LCM and reestablished circulation with 17. Ran liner to 10. mud cuts to 16. mud cuts to 17. TD – 56 side-wall cores cut.575’ PIT = 19.662’ 11. 10.4 ppg 15.760’ ran to bottom OK . drilled Aug 1978 KR Laguna Larga 53 3030 ft to West.600’ hole tight on bottom TD = 8.052’ PIT = 14 ppg no information 9.

Days vs. Depth 0 500 Measured Depth (m-BRT) 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Days .

Step 3: Select Casing Setting Depths .

Common Casing Strings Structural Casing (Usually Subsea) Surface Casing Protective/ Intermediate Casing Tubing Production Casing Liner Conductor Casing .

Structural Casing • Subsea Wells (250-350 ft BML) – Stabilize formations near the seafloor – Prevent excessive washout of near-seafloor material – Typically washed into place • Jackup Wells – Used to add bending strength for free-standing offshore wells without supporting frames (e.g. Mobile Bay) .

or rathole limitations (water) .Conductor Casing • Structural support for weight of diverter • Shoe integrity for diverting operations • Shoe integrity for hydrostatic head in riser • Isolate formations with a history of caving • May be based on achievable drive depth (formation hardness).

Conductor Setting Depth • Adequate depth for structural support for weight of riser and diverter – Dependent on shear force on surface of pipe if driven – Cement support if cemented Diverter Lines Flowline Diverter Production Deck Sea Level Mud Line Support due to shear force • Required shoe integrity adequate for likely pressure in diverter lines during well control (Typically < 150 psi) • Integrity greater than the hydrostatic head in the riser (Typically < 200 psi) • Use historical practice Shoe integrity due to overburden .

Conductor Setting Method Land (40-100 ft BGL) • Pre-installed with rathole machine. and grout or circulate cement • Driven if ground water is present • Drill and run casing in hard rock Jackup/Barge (80-300 ft BML) • Virtually all are driven to refusal • Drill and run casing in hard rock (rare offshore) Floater (300-1000 ft BML) • Drill hole then run casing with rig • Wash/drill casing into soft seafloor Flowline Diverter Diverter Lines Driven. or Drilled . Ratholed.

Surface Casing • Primary purpose in onshore wells is to protect fresh water – Depth is usually specified by regulatory authorities – Run electric logs if depth of FW is not known  < 1 ohms is typically SW  > 3 ohms is typically Fresh  Look for significant shift in conductivity – May set deeper than FW if required for integrity  Conduct risk assessment on FW contamination  Seek regulatory approval  High-quality cement across FW/SW interface • Depth offshore based on integrity required for BOPs .

Surface Casing • Shoe integrity is critical – Prevent contamination of FW by hydrocarbon due to underground flow Hydrocarbon is often exposed in the next interval – – Prevent broaching to surface or seafloor (common minimum is 800’-1000’ BML or BGL) Withstand MW required to drill into the abnormal pressure ramp to set the protective string (if any) – .

Protective Casing • Depth determined by: – – Pressure and integrity gradients Lost returns zones – – – Formation instability Doglegs and keyseats Required changes in drilling fluid – – Drag reduction (directional wells) May serve as Production casing above liner .

Protective Casing Depths Mud Weight Vertical Depth Integrity and Operating Margin Pore Pressure and Operating Margin Eq Mud Weight .

5-1.0 ppg for operating margin Pore Pressure and Operating Margin Eq Mud Weight     .Plot Pressure • Plot pore pressure from:   Vertical Depth    – – – – – – – BHP Sheet Production test data FT test results Estimates of production drawdown Seismic velocity overlays Offset drilling MW Offset well control events ? Csg Depth • Add 0.

Adjust Pressure Data • When using offset data. oil. or water) – Proximity of producing wells that are drawing down formation pressure . ensure pressures are adjusted for – Differences in depth of formation – Fluid column heights (gas.

Plot Integrity • Plot integrity from: • Offset LOT test data Integrity and Operating Margin     Vertical Depth • Offset lost returns events • Methods of estimating integrity based on pressure draw down • Methods of estimating integrity based on comparative rock properties • Regional integrity curves    • Subtract Operating Margin for anticipated ECD and Surge Eq Mud Weight .

Casing Design Line Surface Csg Integrity and Operating Margin Vertical Depth Casing Design Line Pore Pressure and Operating Margin Eq Mud Weight .

Casing Design Line Integrity and Operating Margin Vertical Depth Casing Design Line Pore Pressure and Operating Margin Eq Mud Weight .

Casing Design Line Integrity and Operating Margin Vertical Depth Casing Design Line Pore Pressure and Operating Margin Eq Mud Weight .

Casing Design Line Integrity and Operating Margin Vertical Depth Theoretical MW Range Pore Pressure and Operating Margin Eq Mud Weight .

Class Exercise #1 • Selection of protective casing depths based on anticipated pressure and integrity .

frac sand. or Junk – Meet client’s needs for rathole between bottom of perforations and the casing float collar (gun junk.). frac sand. . • Drilling out float joints and set retainer above shoe if adequate rathole cannot be drilled. Rathole for open hole logs • Rathole for tools should be in MD.Production Casing • Specified by the client organization Lowest Pay Zone – Sufficient rathole to run logging tools below pay zones Rathole inside casing for cased hole logs. etc. not TVD. • Ensure client is specifying the minimum rathole required.

Step 4: Select Casing Sizes and Configuration .

General Guidelines • Start with the final string to be run (tubing). and work backward up the hole 6 What size casing will bit for next hole fit through? What size hole is it practical to run casing in? 5 4 What size casing will bit for next hole fit through? (Assuming the next hole is not underreamed) What size hole is it practical to put casing in? What size casing is it practical to put tubing in? What size of tubing has been requested? 3 2 1 .

20 13-3/8 17-1/2 13-3/8 12-1/4 9-5/8 12-1/4 10-3/4 x 9-5/8 8-1/2 7 . 30 20 Gulf of Mexico Hole 26 17-1/2 Csg.Example Casing Programs North Sea Hole Driven 26 Csg.

Tubing Size • Client typically specifies tubing size requirement – – Optimized flow and economics over life of well Critical gas velocity limitations for carbon steel • Use CRA materials (typically 18-Chrome) • Use larger tubing to reduce velocity OD of client’s preferred tubing connection. How large a connection can they practically work with? Gravel pack clearance needs Production packer with full opening ID • Select production casing to accommodate – – – – • Rely on industry convention and field history . Client’s tubing workover experience.

Normal Clearance 8-1/2” Hole 9-7/8” Hole 12-1/4” Hole Low Clearance 6-1/2” Hole 8-1/2” Hole 10-5/8” Hole Casing Size Run 5-1/2” 7-5/8” 9-5/8” .General Guidelines .Cont’d • • Utilize “normal” clearance designs as the base case “Low” clearance designs are considered if: – – – Well economics require cost reduction Normal clearance design does not allow enough strings to be run to reach objectives Offset experience confirms feasibility.

Normal vs Low Clearance Normal 20” 17-1/2 HL 17-1/2”HL Low 24” 16” Csg 14-3/4” HL 13-3/8” Csg 12-1/4” HL 11-3/4” Csg 9-5/8” Csg 10-5/8” HL 8-1/2” HL 9-5/8” Csg 8-1/2” HL 7” Csg 5-7/8” HL 7-5/8” Csg 6-1/2” HL 5” Csg 5-1/2” Csg .

Casing and Hole Size • Low clearance designs may increase the probability of stuck casing. A combination of issues must be managed: – – – – – – – Ream potential sticking zones to reduce filter cake Compare calculated surge and ECD to hole integrity Utilize integral joint casing (upset typically < 1/4”) Centralize casing heavily to prevent wall contact Moderate. lost returns due to ECD. and cement channeling due to poor mud displacement. uniform. hole enlargement with WBM may be preferred to gauge hole with OBM Consider use of autofill equipment to reduce surge Drill interval with packed BHA to prevent bit darting .

+ O.D Above Bit 2 If EHS is < OD of Casing: OD Above Bit Bit OD • • • • • EHS Increase collar size Run oversized bit sub Run small stabilizer above bit Run packed assembly Use PDC with long gauge .Ensure Effective Hole Size (EHS) EHS = Bit O.D.

Class Exercise #2 Effective Hole Size Concepts .

and well costs. enlarge the initial hole • The method use to enlarge the hole must be determined during preliminary planning because it may have a large impact on rig days. – Underreaming – Bicenter bits – Ream while drilling (RWD) and steerable ream while drilling tools (SRWD) .Underreamming • If additional strings are desired and low casing/hole clearance is not acceptable due to surge or directional doglegs.

Liner vs. Long String Liner Long String .

Liner vs. 1-2 days • Liner operation. Long String • Long String Advantages – – – Potential lower total cost if rig rate is high .less rig time • Long string operation. 3-4 days Reduced risk of mechanical failure • No downhole moving parts • Higher wiper plug reliability Reduced completion costs • Eliminates potential liner top leak • Multiple trips to clean liner and upper casing ID .

Cont’d – Reduced requirements for protective casing • Reduced burst • Potentially use Non-CRA protective in mild H2S if OBM is used.Liner vs. then cover protective with smaller CRA ($) production casing – Pipe movement while cementing • Liners are typically set before cementing. Long String • Long String Advantages . and can only be rotated. Rotational force is limited by connections • Long strings are typically reciprocated and the tensile limit of the casing can be applied to initiate movement .

Liner vs Long String • Liner Advantages – – – – – – Less casing ($) Potential reduced ECD while running and cementing • Also often run autofill equipment with liners Open liner top facilitates cement repair after lost returns Ability to set liner top packer to shut off annular gas flow Allows tapered string with larger tubing above liner top Increased tubing size through use of PBR (Monobore) .

if desired. • A liner is set through the pay zone • A tubing string of the same diameter is stung into a tie-back receptacle in the liner top • Provides the largest tubing size and least flow restriction • The tieback can be larger than the liner. because lower clearance can be used inside casing than in open hole .Monobore Designs • Monobores have a single inside diameter from surface to TD.

The casing itself is often a tubing size (2-7/8” or 3-1/2”) • Inexpensive wells in marginally economic plays • Tubing leaks cannot be repaired easily.Tubingless Wells • Tubingless wells produce up the production casing. used primarily in dry gas with no history of corrosion .

Step 5: Determine the Directional Profile .

Simple Directional Profiles Build and hold S-turn Horizontal .

Angle will be eratic • Compatible with the casing program – – Avoid casing seats in angle-change intervals Avoid high doglegs in shallow sections of deep wells • Compatible with geology – – – – Avoid directional changes in hard formations Drill S-curves before entering hard rock.Simple Well Profiles • Easy to drill – – Two dimensional trajectory (B&H. not just target penetration . S-Curve or Horizontal) Avoid long intervals below 20° angle. if possible Avoid high angles in unstable shales Review entire path with Geology.

Step 6: Optimize performance .

Key Historical Performance Design Issues • • • • • • Plan to conduct as may activities offline as possible Minimize overbalance Minimize hole size. Consider low clearance designs Run long strings in preference to liners Replace wireline logs with LWD Minimize sliding in directional corrections – Lead directional targets to allow natural walk – Drill S-Curves to complete directional work in soft rock – Utilize rotary steerables • Contract rig with adequate pumps to clean hole • Take a zero-tolerance approach to stuck pipe .

Loss of energy may occur through: • • • • • • Bit Balling Bottom Hole Balling Drill String Vibrations Bit Vibration Friction and Stick Slip at High Angle Hole Cleaning and Drag in Cuttings Bed Bit balling is by far the largest problem .Maximizing Drill Rate Drill rate is maximized when all of the drilling energy reaches the rock below the bit.

PDC Bit Balling Cuttings on the face of blade carry some of the bit load if they are not removed efficiently Lamellae Weight carried by solids build-up reduces force on the cutting structure .

PDC Cuttings and Bit Balling DEA 90 Data .

WOB and Bit Balling Observed Field Behavior ROP ROP Increase Proportionate to WOB WOB .

Bit Balling and Flounder Point Bit Balling (Flounder Point) Drill cuttings are reducing weight transmitted to cutting structure ROP Observed Field Behavior 100% efficiency WOB .

Bit Balling and Theoretical Performance Theoretical performance Loss of efficiency and ROP ROP 100% efficiency WOB .

Tooth Bit) 80 rpm 70 rpm 60 rpm ROP increases proportionately to WOB ROP increases proportionately to RPM .Field Behavior Matches Theoretical (Computer Aided Test .

Linear Response to RPM Data from Drilloff Tests on Preceding Page 60 At 40 ksi WOB 50 40 ROP 30 fpm 17 fpm 48 fpm 30 20 10 0 40 50 60 70 RPM 80 90 .

Drilling Rate Tests “Firm” Rock TOR “Sticky” Rock ROP RPM No Balling at 30 ksi Balling at 10 ksi WOB DEA 90 Data Depth Depth .

Design Mitigations for Bit Balling • DrillOff or Drill Rate tests to define balling limits • Utilize NAF • Utilize inhibitive WBM • ROP Enhancers in WBM < 14 ppg (3-6% by vol) • High hydraulics in WBM (HSI 4-6 hp/in2) • Bit designs that direct hydraulics more efficiently • Extended nozzles • Vortex nozzles • Maximize bit open face volume (minimum PDC blade required for durability) .

Differential pressure into the crush zone creates filter cake and holds material down Porosity expansion and crush zone Filter cake and reworked material Hard Rock High P . .Bottom Hole Balling in Hard Rock Hard. brittle rock expands when crushed and develops low pressure in the crush zone.

• • • • • Minimize MW (reduce powder hold-down pressure) Drill with clear water (no filter cake) Drill underbalanced Drill with air Utilize high speed turbines .Bottom Hole Balling Mitigation Drill rate during Bottom Hole Balling is controlled by rate of pressure penetration into the powder (filtrate invasion). Much more difficult to eliminate than bit balling.

Design Mitigations for Vibrations • Anti-whirl bits • Low vibrations BHA arrangements • Utilize BHA Rez to determine stabilizer spacing • Minimize number of stabilizers • Roller Reamers • Soft Torque • Reduce PDC cutter size and reduce number • Reduce drill string RPM by running motor or turbine • Rotary steerable • Increase collar size • Use single 60 foot pendulum rather than 60/90 .

Step 7: Eliminate Invisible Time .

Probability-Case Model P-50 Days Probability P-0 Days P-80 Days Days .

Technical Limit
(A Performance Model)

Early Learning Curve Learning Curve Compression Long-Term Learning Curve Technical Limit Theoretical Limit

Consecutive Wells

Actual Well Duration Industry Normal Well Time Theoretical Time

Invisible Lost Time

Conventional NPT

Removable Time

Eliminate Invisible Time
Increased performance typically requires a change in operating practices, not new technology. The decision to eliminate invisible time is strongly dependent on the perception and mitigation of risk. Examples:
More Costly/ Less Risk
Wiper trip at 24 hrs Pump out of hole on trips Scrape casing and run retainer Use drill collars for bit weight in vertical Control drill < 100 fph Drill out with roller cone, then trip for PDC Drill out and trip for directional assembly Underream pilot hole for additional clearance Produce test oil to barge Hold pressure on liner top cement Replace drill pipe with HWDP in horizontal Control drill to minimize drill gas Wait on after-flow to stop completely             

Less Costly/ Higher Risk
Wiper trip only on observed torque or drag Model HCR, pump out only when HCR < 1.1 Squeeze open ended Use HWDP in vertical hole < 8-1/2” Control drill < 200 fph Drill out with PDC Drill out with MWD and steerable motor Run low-clearance casing/hole design Flare produced test oil offshore Rely on cement design to prevent annular gas flow Run drill pipe in compression in horizontal Install rotating head and drill with 2000 units gas Establish ballooning trend, make connections w/flow

Step 8: Other Design/Operational Issues

substructure and drawworks rating Pump capabilities Site and location access plan Disposal plan • Environmental – – • Transportation logistics . testing. logging) • Rig availability and suitability – – – Mob/Demob cost Derrick.Potential Additional Costly Design Issues • Safety (primarily H2S) • Evaluation Program (coring.

such as: – – – – – – – – – H2S Hole stability Lost returns Stuck pipe Formation damage Chronic BHA failures Failure to achieve formation evaluation Primary cement failure during production Sand production .Potential Additional Design Issues .Cont’d • Weather window and downtime • Mitigation of historical trouble and NPT.

Rig Time. Risk) Step 5: Determine the directional profile (Torque and Drag) Step 6: Optimize performance (Mitigate Bit Balling or Bottom Hole Balling) Step 7: Eliminate Invisible Time (Mitigate Change/Risk) Step 8: Other design/operational issues .Summary Step 1: Establish team (Functional Relationships) Step 2: Collect and Display Well Data (Thorough Research. vs. Effective Communication) Step 3: Select casing setting depths (Integrity Driven) Step 4: Select casing sizes and configuration (Casing Cost vs.

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