Bits and Related Equipment Presentation 11

Sam Pickett

ExxonMobil Development Company Houston, Texas 2004

Roller Cone Bits

Mill Tooth Bit

Roller Cone Bits • Soft formation bits are designed to have 2-5 degrees of offset (skew) • Offset is what allows for the dragging action (increases the bottom hole action) .

.Roller Cone Bits • Offset (angle or distance) • Note: 0 offset would show the center lines of the cones intersecting at center of bit.

Note the dragging action due to offset. .Soft formation mill tooth bit.

hard formation mill tooth bits have a true rolling action as seen in the next slide • The rolling action provides a better crushing action needed for harder formations .Roller Cone Bits • Hard formation mill tooth bits are designed to have 0 offset (or 0 skew) • Thus.

.Hard formation mill tooth bit. Note the true rolling action crushing (no dragging).

Roller Cone Bits .

Roller Cone Bits Soft Hard .

Roller Cone Bits • Soft roller cone bits have: – – – – – – – – Less teeth and longer teeth Large offset (or skew) Small journal angle (30-36 degrees) Large cone angle More teeth and shorter teeth No offset (or skew) Large journal angle Small cone angle • Hard roller cone bits have: .

Tungsten Carbide Insert Bit .


Roller Cone Bits • Insert bits originally designed to drill harder formations with a crushing action (hammer) • Load applied via inserts to overcome the compressive strength of the formation .

Button transfers load to the formation and chips rock away .


Roller Cone Bits • Today. mill tooth bits are usually used for soft shallow formations and insert bits are more common in the medium to hard range .

Roller Cone Bits • Bearing Types – Unsealed Roller Bearings – Sealed Roller Bearings – Sealed Journal Bearings (friction bearings) .

Ball Bearings Roller Bearings .

Ball Bearings Journal Bearing .

Lubrication System .


F14T F15/15OD. 65. F37D F37OD.F57A F65OD. GT30C MX35C/35CG STR30C/35C ATJ44/44A/44G HR40. MF10T MF1/12 MF10D/120D 10MF/MFD 12MF/MFD 12MFY . 67. 87. 89(D) XT(D)91.GTXG3 GTX3 MAXGT3 ATJ4 2 3 5 4 ATX1 ATXG1 GTX1 GTXG1 MAXG1/GT1 6 7 ATJ1/1S ATJG1H.MS53 MS53DH. HR70 ATJ77 STR80. 73. 75(D) XS(D)77. 69(D) XS(D)71.H09C ATJ11/11S ATJ11H. 65. MF47OD F45A F47H/47HOD F5/5OD MF5/5D F57/57D/57OD F57DDPD MF57DDPD MF57OD. 85. 20MD F02T 02MF F05/05T MF05/0D MF05T. F17 F25/25A/25OD F2/2H/2D.STR1 GT1 ATMG1/G1S ATMGT1 ATJ2 ATMG3 ATMGT3 ATJG4 1 Y11 Y12 Y13 EMS13G EMS13DH MS13G ETS13G MS216 S216 S31G ATX05 GTX00/03 MAX05 MAXGT00/03 ATJG8 ATJ05. F37DDPD MF37/37D MF37DDPD F4/4A/4H/4OD F45H. F47/47OD F47A. 73. 25MF MF20T/25T 20MFD. MX03 ATMGT00/03 ATM05.HP73 HP73DH HP74 7GA 7JA G99 SECURITY DBS HUGHES Y83JA REED EHP83/83DH HP83/83DH 9JA F9.1 XN1 1 2 34 XT1 5 6 XS1 XSC1 XL1 XLC1 7 1 STEEL TOOTH SOFT 2 3 XN3 XN4 XN5 XT3 XT4 XS3 XL3 XS4 XL4 STAND ARD ROLLER BEARING ROLLER BEARING AIR COOLED ROLLER BEARING GAGE PRO TECTED SEALED ROLLER BEARING SEALED ROLLER BEARING GAGETECTED PRO SEALED FRICTION BEARING SEALED FRICTION BEARING GAGETECTED PRO 1 R1 R2 R3 ATX3 ATXG3.S53A EHP43/43A/43H EHP43ADH/HDH HP43/43A HP43A-M HP43-M HP44/44M EHP44H/HDH EHP51/51A/51H EHP51ADH/HDH EHP51X.MX1 ATM1/1S GTG1/H. Bit classifications e ar general and ar e to be used only as simple guides. 87. GT03 STR03.EMS51A HP51/51A/51A-M HP51H/51H-M HP51X/51X-M HP52/52A/52X HP52-M EHP53/53A/53DH EHP53ADH HP53/53A/53A-M HP53ADH HP53ADGH HP53-JA HP54 XS(D)18 to 23(D) XL(D)18 to 23(D) XT(D)24 to 27(D) 2 XS(D)24 to 27(D) XL(D)24 to 27(D) XS(D)28 to 33(D) XL(D)28 to 33(D) 5 INSER T SOFT 3 XT(D)28 to 33(D) MAXGT20CG GTX20C M27S. M3SOD 3JS XT(D)34 to 39(D) 4 XT(D)40 to 45(D) 1 XT(D)46 to 51(D) 2 XT(D)52 to 59(D) 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 XT(D)61. 81(D) XT(D)83. 15JS 15M/MD A1JSL. MX09C MX09CG. S51A MS51A-M MS51ADHM ETS51/51H S52A EMS53A.) 1 DSJ DTJ DGJ V2J 2 4 5 SDS MSDSH/0D MSDSSH/OD SDT SDGH MSDGH/0D SVH 6 7 FDS FDS+2 FDS+ FDSS+2 FDSS+ MFDSH/0D MFDSSH FDT FDG FV FDGH MFDGH/OD FVH 2 3 STEEL TOOTH MEDIUM STEEL TOOTH HARD 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 XT(D)00 to 05(D) XS(D)00 to 05(D) XL(D)00 to 05(D) XS(D)06 to 09(D) XL(D)06 to 09(D) XS(D)10 to 13(D) XL(D)10 to 13(D) R4 DR5 R7 XT(D)06 to 09(D) 2 INSER T VERY SOFT XT(D)10 to 13(D) 3 4 EHP41/41H EHP41ADH HP41A M01S0D M02S0D M02S. H30 ATJ33C/35C ATM33C. 81(D) XS(D)83. 67.MA15 15MF/MFD A1. 97(D) XS(D)99(D) G77 6 INSER T MEDIUM EHP61/61A/61DH EHP61ADH HP61/61A/61ADH HP61DH EHP62/62A/62DG HP62/62A/62JA HP62DH/62ADH EHP63 HP63/63DH HP64 4GA 47JA 5GA 4JS 5JS M57S M57SD M57SOD 7 8 INSER T HARD INSER T VERY HARD Y73JA EHP73. M10T M12T/TY 10M/MD 12M/MD/MY M15S/SD/S0D M15T. M02T 02M M05S.GT09C STR05C. 05MFD F1. MF2HD F27/27D/27A F27I.HR40C STR40C/44C ATJ55/55A ATJ55R/55RG HR50/50R STR50/50R ATJ66. MA1SL M2S/2SD/2S0D M20T. STR30 MX30/30G GT30. F15T MF15/15D/15T MF15OD. GT09 ATM11/11H ATMGT09 MX09/09G STR09. 2JS 20M. S63A EMS41H EMS41HDH MS41H 2 5 6 4 7 S11 EMS11G/11DH HP11 MHT11G MS11G/11DH HP11+ MHT11DH EHT11 EHP12 EHT12 HP12 HP13 HP13G MHP13G MHT13G MHT13DH HP21 HP21G HP31G NO TE: This chart shows the IADC codeelationship r between specific bit types. 63. 97(D) XT(D)99(D) XS(D)34 to 39(D) XL(D)34 to 39(D) MAXGT30CG GTX30C XS(D)40 to 45(D) XL(D)40 to 45(D) G44 XS(D)46 to 51(D) XL(D)46 to 51(D) XS(D)52 to 59(D) XL(D)52 to 59(D) XS(D)61. MX18 GT18/18C H18/18C ATMGT18 ATM11C/11CG ATJ22/22S ATM22/22G MX20/20G GT20/20S H20/20B/20C STR20 ATJ22C. 79. H03 ATJ05C. 93(D) XT(D)95. 75(D) XT(D)77. M05SOD M05T. F07 05MF. 63. 20MF F20D/20T MF2/2D.ATJ88 ATJ99 Y62JA Y63JA MS62/62DH S62A EMS63. 79. F67/67OD F7/7OD/7DDPD F80D XT(D)14 to 17(D) 4 XT(D)18 to 23(D) 1 XS(D)14 to 17(D) XL(D)14 to 17(D) ATX11/11H GTX09 MAX11H MAXGT09 ATX11C MAXGT18 GTX18 ATX22 GTX20 MAX22 MAXGT20 EMS43A/DH MS43A-M MS43AD-M S43A EMS44H/HDH EMS44A/ADH S44A. 69(D) XT(D)71. HR60 STR70. M3S0D M3S. F10D/10T F12T. MS44A EMS51A/51H EMS51ADH MS51A. F9OD SMITH . HR80 HR80B. H09 ATJ11C. (Since bit c hanges ar e constantly being made . 85. 93(D) XS(D)95. MX28 GT28/28C/20C ATM28/22C H28/28C ATJ33/33A/33S ATM33. MF27/27D 20MFYOD F3/3D/30D F3H/3HOD MF3/3D/3H MF30D/30T 30MF F35/35A F37/37A F36H. check with a Security DBS epr r esentative if you desir ea certain type whic h is not sho wn. 89(D) XS(D)91. 05M 05MD M1S/0D. STR40 MAX44C G55 MAX55 ATJ44CA ATJ44C/A MX40CG. F15H/15HT MF15H.

Roller Cone • Find a Security DBS bit with the following specifications – Medium insert (6) – Hardness subset level (1) – Sealed friction bearing with gage protection Answer: SEC XS40 .45 .Types of Bits .45 or XL40 .

Roller Cone Bits • What is the IADC number code for this bit? Answer: 617 .

Roller Cone Bits • Find an equivalent Hughes bit. Answer: ATJ44 .

Fixed Cutter Bits • Fixed Cutter Bits  PDC Bits  Natural Diamond Bits  Diamond Impregnated Bits .

Steel Drag Bit (Fish Tail) .

PDC Cutters Ring Claw Cutter .

PDC Bits Steel Body PDC Bit Matrix Body PDC Bit .

Different PDC Body Types Steel Body Bit (FS2441) Matrix Body Bit (FM2443) .

Impreg Bits Medium Hard Diamond Bit Hard Diamond Bit .

5.Factors Effecting ROP  What effects ROP? – – – – – 1. Formation Characteristics Differential Pressure (Overbalance) Mud Type and Properties Bit Hydraulics (nozzles. 4. HSI) Directional (slide vs. rotary) . 3. 2.

Factors Effecting ROP 1. Formation Characteristics • Drillability relates to Compressive Strength and Abrasiveness .

8000 Anhydrite Chalk Salt Sandstone Shale Anhydrite Chalk Limestone Salt Sandstone Shale PDC PDC PDC PDC PDC PDC PDC PDC PDC PDC PDC .Fixed Cutter Selections based on Rock Compressive Strengths Classification Compressive Strength ( PSI ) Lithology Bit Type Very Low Strength less than 4000 Low Strength 4000 .

16.32.000 Lithology Bit Type Medium Strength Anhydrite Basalt Chalk Dolomite Limestone Sandstone Shale PDC Diamond PDC TSP PDC PDC PDC High Strength 16.000 .000 Basalt Diamond / Impreg Chert TSP/Diamond/Impreg Sandstone TSP / Diamond Shale TSP / Diamond Limestone TSP / Diamond .Fixed Cutter Selections based on Rock Compressive Strengths Classification Compressive Strength ( PSI ) 8000 .

Fixed Cutter Selections based on Rock Compressive Strengths
Classification Compressive Strength ( PSI ) Lithology Bit Type

Very High Strength

Greater than 32,000

Basalt Chert Dolomite Granite Limestone Quartzite Volcanic Tuff

Diamond / Impreg Diamond / Impreg Diamond / Impreg Diamond / Impreg Diamond / Impreg Diamond / Impreg Diamond / Impreg

Factors Effecting ROP 2. Differential Pressure • • Differential Pressure (Overbalance) significantly effects ROP Differential Pressure is the difference between the mud hydrostatic pressure and the formation pore pressure .

OBM should improve torque and drag in a directional well. thus improving ROP • . If lost returns are not a concern. WBM if hydratable shales are present.Factors Effecting ROP 3. Mud Type and Properties • • The mud used to drill the well can have a large impact on ROP PDC bit will drill faster in OBM vs.

Mud Properties • WBM Properties – Density – Solids Content ROP – Oil Content – Fluid Loss (API filtrate) – Viscosity Increasing Mud Property .Factors Effecting ROP 3.

Bit Hydraulics • Pressure drop across the bit aids in cleaning the bit and can improve ROP Bits should be nozzled to optimize hydraulics HSI > 2 is usually adequate • • .Factors Effecting ROP 4.

hence rotary steering tools have been developed (new technology).Factors Effecting ROP 5. . Directional • Slide drilling reduces ROP ~30% • Rotary drilling is preferred.

Vision • Ultimate Goal • Drill economic well for the lowest cost possible .Bit Planning .

(spread rate) = bit on bottom time (hr) = trip time (hr) = footage drilled by bit (ft) .Economics • Compare alternatives with Cost/Foot Eqn.Bit Planning . C = B + R(T + t) F C B R T t F = cost per foot ($/ft) = bit cost ($) = rig operating costs ($/hr).

Economics • Cost/Foot Example .Choose a bit! • Plan to drill 1000’ from 10000’ to 11000’ Bit A Bit Cost: $30000/bit ROP = 50 fph Total Footage = 1000’/bit Trip Time: 10 hr/bit Spread Rate: $2000/hour Bit B Bit Cost: $5000/bit ROP: 50 fph Total Footage = 500’/bit Trip Time: 10 hr/bit Spread Rate = $2000/hour C = B + R(T + t) F .Bit Planning .

. Bit A: $90/ft Bit B: $90/ft • Bit A and B tie for low cost .Bit Planning ....Economics • The low cost bit is.

Hole Enlarging Equipment Bi-Center Bit Ream While Drilling Underreamer Hole Opener .

Ream While Drilling Technology .

Typical Bi-center Assembly .

RA/2 .arcsin [(PT .Eccentric Tool Geometry Pass-Thru Diameter (PT) Pilot Diameter (P) Reamer Angle (RA) Drill Hole Diameter (D) D = PT x sin(180 .P) x sin(RA/2)/PT)])/sin (RA/2) D = Drill Hole Size PT = Pass-Thru Diameter P = Pilot Hole Diameter RA = Reamer Angle .

Pilot hole size determined by the drill hole size and pass-thru size. .Define Pass-Thru Size. Drill Hole Size And Pilot Hole Size Pass-thru size determined by casing that will be set. Drill hole size determined by annular clearance required.

flowing formations. • Larger wellbore for multi-laterals • Reduced risk of sticking pipe in high angle wells. and depleted sands.Ream While Drilling Technology Advantages • Ability to drill a larger hole than the existing casing will allow. swelling formations. • Easier casing runs through high degree doglegs. • Maximize clearance between the casing and borehole. . which improves cement clearance. • Eliminate underreaming in overbalanced conditions. • Ream While Drilling from vertical to horizontal.

Reduced drilling costs. Ability to run one size larger casing. • Ensures a larger diameter production zone. Provides a larger hole for better completions of pre-packed screens/gravel packs. . No risk of mechanical underreamer parts lost downhole.Ream While Drilling Technology Advantages • • • • • Penetration rates comparable to historical offsets.

Ream While Drilling Technology Tools • RWD .Rotary applications • SRWD .Rotary or steerable motor applications .Rotary or steerable motor • applications • • STRWD .

RWD Tool Fishing Neck 22” Minimum Large Stabilization Pad Tong Neck 10” Minimum .

Pilot bit flexibility . Short compact body to be used on steerable systems.SRWD Tool Breaker Slots for Make-Up Stabilization pad with optimized geometry for directional drilling.

STRWD Tool Breaker Slots for Make-Up Short compact body to be used on steerable systems. One-Piece matrix design . Stabilization pad with optimized geometry for slimhole drilling.

Tool Features Hole Opening Blade* Interchangeable Nozzles* Black Ice/ CSE Cutters Depth Adjusted Cutters BHA Flexibility* Pilot Stabilization Pad (PSP) Pilot Bit Flexibility* * denotes features available exclusively on RWD and SRWD tools .

Patented Hole Opening Blade Smooth Transition from Pass-Thru to Drill size Pass Thru Center 1/3 Open Hole Center 2/3 Open Hole Center Drill Center Pass Thru Hole 1/3 Open Hole 2/3 Open Hole Drill Size Hole Hole Opening Blade .

Forces fluid to travel up and around the blades for better hydraulic cleaning.Patent Pending Pilot Stabilization Pad (PSP) • Dynamically positions Ream While Drilling tool in the center of the pilot hole. Improves transition from pass-thru to drill size. Minimizes bending. • • • • . Offsets the resultant force created by the cutting structure.

RWD BHA Flexibility • Packed Assembly • Semi-packed Assembly • Pendulum Assembly • Logging Tool Placement .

BHA Flexibility .

Pilot Bit Flexibility • The RWD/SRWD tools have been run successfully with both Tricone and PDC bits. mud weight. • • . mud type and hydraulics. Base pilot bit choice on what would be run when not using an RWD/SRWD tool. Selection should be based on lithology.

Diamond Impregnated Bits Aggressive Design Hard Formation Design .

Core Bits TSP (PDC) Core Bit Natural Diamond Core Bit .

Core Barrel .


Diamond Impregnated Bits Impregnated Diamond Cutters PDC Cutters Backed with Impregnated Diamond .

Summary • Bit planning is required in order to obtain the lowest cost per foot • The two basic types of bits are Roller Cone Bits and Fixed Cutter Bits .

Name that Bit! .

Name that Bit! .

Name that Bit! .

Name that Bit! .

.Any feedback regarding this lecture or suggestions on improvements for future presentations (topics. Thank you. etc.) are greatly appreciated.

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