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Basic Protection Elements

On the ADVC Controller

With the flexVUE Operator Interface

Overview
The purpose of this presentation is to familiarise you with the basic protection features of the ADVC. The following topics will be covered:

Basic Protection Elements. Global Protection Settings. Protection Pickup. Fault Reset.

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

Faults
A fault is a disturbance in the power system which, if allowed to persist, may damage plant and interrupt the supply of electric energy.

Faults on medium voltage distributions systems are normally caused by accidental short circuits between nodes that are supposed to be at different voltages.
-i.e. Phase conductors and Earth
Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE> 3

Types of Short Circuit


A number of types of short circuits can occur in a power system:
Ph1 Ph2

Three Phase
-Generally provokes the highest current but reasonably rare (5%)

Ph3

Three Phase Short Circuit


Ph1 Ph2 Ph3

Phase to Earth
-The most frequent (80%)
Ph1

Phase to Earth Short Circuit

Phase to Phase

Ph2 Ph3

Phase to Phase Short Circuit

Ph1

Phase to Phase to Earth

Ph2 Ph3

Phase to Phase to Earth Short Circuit


Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE> 4

Protection
The act of detecting, locating and initiating the removal of a fault from the power system. Protection Devices:
Contribute to protecting people against electrical hazards. Avoid damage to equipment. Limit thermal, dielectric and mechanical stress on equipment. Maintain stability and service continuity in the power system.

Protection devices are one component in a protection system

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

Protection System
An Automatic Circuit Recloser is a complete Protection System consisting of the following components: Measurement Sensors
-Current and Voltage -Supply data required to detect faults

CVT

CT

Protection Relay
-To determine when detected faults should be cleared. CAPE

Switchgear
-Capable of breaking fault current and clearing the fault from the power system.
Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

N Series ACR

Basic Protection Elements


The basic protection elements on the ADVC controller are: Once a fault has been detected and its type identified the appropriate settings can be applied so that the fault can be cleared in the optimum time.

Phase Overcurrent Protection


-Phase to Phase or 3 phase faults

Earth Fault Protection


-Faults between one or more phases and earth

Sensitive Earth Fault Protection


-Low level but persistent earth faults

These are all current operated elements

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

Protection Sequence
Measure Current

Is P/U Current exceeded?

No

Yes Calculate time to trip.

Pick Up

10:11 Pickup

22/10/09 10:11:29:65

No

Has time expired? Yes Trip the Recloser.

Time to Trip = 2.75s


22/10/09 10:11:32:40 10:11 Phase Prot Trip

Trip

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

Protection Pick Up
Protection Pick Up occurs when the measured current exceeds (the setting current x the highest active multiplier) for that element. Protection Pick Up means that protection timing has started and if the present fault level is maintained a trip will occur. Trip current settings apply to all trip settings within a protection group and are known as global settings.
PHASE A

Phase Set 200 Amp


PHASE A Phase Pickup 1.0x

PROTECTION MENU Protection Global Protection Trip Settings Protection Control Directional Elements

PROTECTION GLOBAL Global control (Display, Copy, Trips to lockout, Seq reset time, Max time, Auto restore, Auto reclose) Global pickup (Current & mult for Phase, Earth, SEF, NPS) Fault reset (FR time, Reset Threshold Mult for Phase, Earth and NPS, Start at Rst Thresh/Pickup)

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

Global Protection Settings in WSOS

Protection Pickup Configuration Settings

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Protection Pickup Settings


Phase protection pickup will occur at 200 x 1.0 = 200 Amps
-i.e. Setting Current and Pickup Current are the same.

Phase protection pickup will occur at 200 x 1.2 = 240 Amps


- i.e. Setting Current and Pickup

1.2

Current are not the same.

The Setting Current is always used to calculate IDMT tripping times for a given fault level regardless of the Pickup Current.

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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The Effect of the Pickup Multiplier Setting


Setting Current = 200A

270 A 240 A 200 A

Current Multiple = 1.35 Pickup Multiplier = 1.2 Pickup Multiplier = 1.0


Pickup

C U R R E N T

Pickup

Where the tripping time is dependent on the level of fault current it will be determined by its relationship to the setting current and not the pickup current. Time

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Pickup Multiplier

Pickup Multiplier 1.5 1.1

Setting Current 200 Amps

Pickup Current Pickup Current 220A300A


Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE> 13

Using the Pickup Multiplier


The Pickup Multiplier can be used whenever it is necessary to prevent tripping for currents above the Setting Current for that element. In the ADVC controller, Pickup means that protection timing has started and will eventually trip the switchgear if the fault level doesnt change.

Fuse

Pickup current and minimum operating current are the same value.

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Fault Reset
A Fault Reset occurs when the measured current has fallen back below the pickup level by a set amount for a set time. The amount the current must reduce by is determined by the Reset Threshold Multiplier setting.
-Range 90 100% (of Pickup Current)

The time the current must be below this level is determined by the Fault Reset Time setting.
-Range: 0 10 000 ms

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Fault Reset Settings

Fault Reset Settings

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Fault Reset Operation


Time to Trip

C U R R E N T Pickup

Setting Current Reset Threshold Multiplier 90% Pickup Fault Reset Time Max Current

Fault Reset Time

200 A 180 A

Trip Prot Resetting

Prot Resetting

Prot Reset Max Current

Prot Reset

Current at Trip Time


Open

Closed

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Pause
Time to Trip

Pickup Active Timing Suspended

C U R R E N T Pickup

Setting Current

Fault Reset Time

200 A 180 A

Pause
Trip Timing Timer Starts Here Prot Resetting

Prot Paused

Prot Reset Max Current Current at Trip Time


Closed Open

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Pickup Multiplier Effect on Pause Band


The Pickup Multiplier setting also effects the current level at which fault reset begins.
Setting Current x 1.5 C U R R E N T Pickup 200 A Prot Resetting 180 A Pause Band = 30 A

300 A 270 A

Pickup 300 A
Setting Current Prot Resetting 270 A Pause Band = 20 A

200 A 180 A

Time

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Maximum Time Setting

Maximum Time

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Maximum Time
The Maximum Time setting modifies the time current characteristic so that the operating time is not more than the Maximum Time regardless of the fault level. This setting is generally used to ensure tripping when the current is only slightly above the trip setting.

Range 2 180s

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Maximum Time Curve Modifier

Maximum Time 20 s

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Sequence Reset Time Setting

Sequence Reset Time

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Sequence Reset 4 Trips to Lockout


Protection Sequence Reset Timer
Trip 1

Reset Pickup Idle


Trip 3 Trip 4

Trip 2

Closed

LOCKOUT
Open Reclose 1 Reclose 2 Reclose 3

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Sequence Reset Time Expired


Protection Sequence Reset Timer
Trip 1

Reset Pickup Running Expired Idle


Trip 1

Trip 2

Closed
Sequence Reset Time

30s

Open Reclose 1 Reclose 2 Reclose 1

22/10/09 10:11:33:40 22/10/09 10:12:03:40


Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

Automatic Reclose Sequence Reset


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Sequence Reset Time Cancelled


Protection Sequence Reset Timer
Trip 1

Reset Pickup Running Idle Cancelled


Trip 3

Trip 2

Closed
Sequence Reset Time

Open Reclose 1 Reclose 2 Reclose 3

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Delayed Sequence Reset Time


Protection Sequence Reset Timer
Trip 1

Reset Pickup Running Expired Idle


Trip 1

Trip 2

Closed Sequence Reset Time

Open Reclose 1 31/07/09 12:02:14:39 31/07/09 12:02:14:40 31/07/09 12:02:16:06 31/07/09 12:02:16:11
Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>31/07/09

Reclose 2 Automatic Reclose Pickup Protection Resetting Protection Reset Sequence Reset
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12:02:46:11

Trips to Lockout Settings

Trips to Lockout

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Trips to Lockout Key Points

There can be up to 3 Trips to Lockout settings:


-Trips to Lockout -SEF Trips to Lockout -NPS Trips to Lockout

The Trips to Lockout setting is the maximum number of trips that can occur in a single sequence.
SEF and NPS Trips to Lockout which cant be more than the Trips to Lockout setting can terminate a sequence earlier.
Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE> 29

Trips to Lockout

20/10/2009 3:18:58.08 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:05.66 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:05.66 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:06.65 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:06.66 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:10.73 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:10.73 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:20.72 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:20.73 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:23.36 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:23.36 PM 20/10/2009 3:19:23.38 PM

Pickup Phase Protection Trip Protection Trip 1 Automatic Reclose Pickup Earth Protection Trip Protection Trip 2 Automatic Reclose Pickup NPS protection trip Protection Trip 3 Lockout

TRIP FLAGS O/C LOP EXT E/F UOV

01 00
00 00

BC

00 01
00 00 00 01

SEF
NPS

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Reset Curves
The time taken to reset a fault is normally determined by the Fault Reset Time setting. Reset Curves are an alternative way of determining the time taken for a fault to reset. If Reset Curves are required they must be made available.
CONFIGURATION MENU

FEATURE SELECTION
FEATURE SELECTION PROTECTION PROTECTION

Rst Curve Available

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Reset Curve Settings


Reset Curves Not Available
FAULT RESET A Fault Reset 50 ms

Reset Curves Available


FAULT RESET A Phase Reset 90% Earth Reset 90% NPS Reset 90% Start at Rst Thresh

Phase Reset 90%


Earth Reset 90% NPS Reset 90%
PROTECTION MENU Protection Global Protection Trip Settings Protection Control Directional Elements

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

PROTECTION GLOBAL Global control (Display, Copy, Trips to lockout, Seq reset time, Max time, Auto restore, Auto reclose) Global pickup (Current & mult for Phase, Earth, SEF, NPS) Fault reset (FR time, Reset Threshold Mult for Phase, Earth and NPS, Start at Rst Thresh/Pickup)

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Reset Curves Feature Selection

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Reset Curve Settings in WSOS

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Selecting a Reset Curve

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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IEC255 Standard Inverse Reset Curve

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Protection and Reset Curves

180 A

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Pickup Multiplier x 2

180 A 400 A

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Reset Threshold Multiplier 50%

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Reset Curve Start at Pickup

200 A

Schneider Electric < AUTHOR > <DATE>

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Basic Protection Elements - Review


What are the three basic protection elements in the ADVC and what do they have in common? Phase Fault, Earth Fault and SEF are all current operated elements. What is the possible range of settings for NPS Trips to Lockout if Trips to Lockout is set to 3? NPS Trips to Lockout can be 1, 2 or 3. The Sequence Reset Timer will start immediately on Automatic Reclose unless what condition exists? Close onto Fault. How wide is the pause band when Reset Curves are not available and the following settings are active? 30 Amps What would the pause band be for these settings if Reset Curves were available and set to start at the Threshold? 120 Amps
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