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Entrepreneurship Management - Syllabus
• Entrepreneurship, Meaning, Entrepreneurship awareness, Need for Entrepreneurship and self employment, qualities to become an entrepreneur, building your own enterprise, Government and Entrepreneurship Development Programmes • Business opportunities, Importance of creativity in Entrepreneurship, bringing out creative ideas, Managing resources of enterprise (6 Ms of Management), risk factor in self employment, preparation of project for small scale unit, starting a venture • Legal considerations for opening a new unit, forms of ownership, sole proprietary, partnership, elements of contract law
• Planning for small scale business, location of business, financial management, Human resource management, production management, marketing management, cost controlling, accounting of business, developing, expansion and ending the venture • Quick start methods, a new approach to selling products and services, franchisees, turnkey or packaged business, buying an existing business • Entrepreneurship in Banking and Insurance sectors, opportunities available after privatisation of these sectors • Entrepreneurship development Centers, training to entrepreneurs, training centers in India • Case studies
Who is an entrepreneur?
• Entrepreneur is the person responsible for setting up a business or an enterprise. He takes the initiative, is innovative, and looks for high achievements. He is a change agent who puts up new projects that create wealth, open up employment opportunities and leads to the growth of the sector. One who creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profit and growth by identifying opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to capitalize on them.
• The entrepreneur is an individual who introduces something new in the economy- a new production method, a new product, a new source of raw material, a new market etc. - Joseph Schumpeter. An entrepreneur is the one who always searches for change, responds to it and exploits it as an opportunity. Innovation is a specific tool by which he exploits change as an opportunity, for a business or service. - Peter Drucker A true entrepreneur is the one who is endowed with more than average capacity in the task of organising and coordinating the various other factors of production. – Francis Walker
Characteristics/Attributes of Entrepreneurs
• • • • • • • • Desire for responsibility Preference for moderate risk Confidence in their ability to succeed Desire for immediate feedback High level of energy Future orientation Skilled at organizing Value achievement over money
The ‘Type E’ Personality
Common Traits of Entrepreneurs: • Aggressively pursues goals; pushes self and others • Seeks autonomy, independence and freedom from boundaries • Sends consistent messages; very focused • Acts quickly, often without deliberating • Keeps distance and maintains objectivity • Pursues simple, practical solutions • Willing to take risks; comfortable with uncertainty • Exhibits clear opinions and values; has high expectations • Impatient; “just do it” mentality • Positive, upbeat, optimistic; communicates confidence
What is entrepreneurship?
• It is the propensity of mind to take calculated risks with confidence to achieve a pre determined business or industrial objective
Process of action
Entrepreneurship and developing countries
• The potential of economic development remains dormant because of undeveloped or underdeveloped human resources. In fact, man is much more crucial to development than any other economic factors. The sufficiency of other resources alone, does not lead us anywhere. Resources to be developed may exist in plenty but if development-linked human minds are absent, hardly any economic development will take place. While human skills include manufacturing, technical, supervisory, managerial, administrative and entrepreneurial competence, it is the entrepreneurial quality, which is a key ingredient. It often sets the limit to the degree of industrial development and the speed with which it can be achieved in a particular country or region.
Barriers to entrepreneurship
• • • • • • • • • • • Lack of a viable concept Lack of market knowledge Lack of technical skills Lack of seed capital/resources Lack of business know how Lack of sufficient infrastructure Complacency Restrictive effects of customs and traditions Legal constraints Monopoly Restrictions due to patents
• He is the one who innovates and turns the idea into a profitable reality, within the framework of an organization It is necessary that an organization has a conducive environment to encourage intrapreneurs
Characteristics of a conducive intrapreneurial environment are: • • • • • • Encouragement to innovation and experimentation Freely available resources Measurable rewards Flexibility to alter plans Long time horizon to measure success Top management support
Advantages of Entrepreneurship
To an Individual
• Self Employment • Employment for near & dear ones • Prolonged career for next generations • Freedom to use own ideas - Innovation and creativity • Unlimited income / higher retained income • Independence • Satisfaction
To the Nation
• Provides larger employment • Results in wider distribution of wealth • Mobilizes local resources, skills and savings • Accelerates the pace of economic development • Stimulates innovation & efficiency
Factors favouring Entrepreneurship
• Growth of education- science, technology & management • Developed infrastructure facilities • Financial assistance • Training facilities • Protective and promotional policies • Globalization
Entrepreneurship and Economic Development
• Entrepreneurs combine resources, put their time and efforts and produce goods or services • What they contribute – productivity, output, value addition, income and employment • Entrepreneurship is a “Low Cost Strategy”. Entrepreneurs perform the crucial role themselves • The spirit of Entrepreneurship – Drive, achieving higher goals, creativity, innovative attitude. • A dynamic society emerges and the spirit spreads like a chain reaction.
Entrepreneurship and Management Students
• Enterprises in protected economy can be mismanaged • Enterprises managed in competitive environment are essentially to be
• A Management Graduate is a person trained to manage an enterprise. Naturally, he will deliver the best results • A Management Graduate should not be just a Job Seeker. He can and should take the role of Job Provider • Experience confirms that more Management Graduates take Entrepreneurial Role (after some experience) and their income is higher than their colleagues who are in job
Entrepreneurial Decision Process
• Pull Factors – Perception of Advantages – Spotting an Opportunity – Government Policies – Motivation from Biographies or Success Stories – Influenced by Culture, Community, Family Background, Teachers, Peers, etc. • Push Factors – Job Dissatisfaction – Relocation – Lay-off – Retirement – Boredom
Comparison of Traditional Managers, Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs
Traditional Managers Primary motives Perks and promotion Entrepreneurs Intrapreneurs
Selfemployment, satisfaction and money Short-term – business establishment; Long-term – growth of business
Creative freedom and recognition Tend to follow the middle path
Short-term – meeting quotas and budgets; weekly, monthly, quarterly and the annual planning horizon
Traditional Managers Activity Delegates and supervises
Direct involvement , not merely delegation Moderate risk taker Nil Not concerned about traditional status Attempts to hide risky projects from view until ready
Risk Monetary Risk Status
Careful Nil Concerned about status Tries to avoid mistakes
Moderate risk taker High Not concerned about status Deals with mistakes and failures
Failure and mistakes
Traditional Managers Decisions Like to take their own but unable to disagree with superiors Others Family members worked for large organizations Hierarchy as basic relationship
Follows dream with decisions
Able to get others to agree to help achieve their dreams Self, customers, and sponsors Entrepreneurial small-business, professional
Serves who? Family history
Self and customers Entrepreneurial small-business, professional
Relationship with others
Transactions and Transactions deal-making as within hierarchy basic relationship
Choose an entrepreneur as a case study. Understand his qualities/characteristics Factors that introduced him to entrepreneurship-push/pull Environment conditions (political, social etc)- favourable/unfavourable Process of starting a business venture; use of innovation and creativity Details of the enterprise, product/service provided Path to success-overcoming failures, problems faced, major milestones, takeovers, acquisitions SWOT of the organization/business in general; recommendations if any
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