AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS

• INFLUENCED BY GENETIC, HORMONAL, VIRAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS • FORMATIONS OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST SELF-TISSUES • MAY INVOLVE T-CELLS AND B-CELLS OR BOTH • ORGAN SPECIFIC • ALSO NON-ORGAN SPECIFIC

NURSING TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS • • • • • CORTICOSTEROID THERAPY CYTOTOXIC DRUGS EMOTIONAL SUPPORT EDUCATION RX SPECIFIC TO TYPE OF AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER .

LOSS OF CONSCIOUS ETIOLOGY UNCLEAR TREATED SOMETIMES WITH ANTI-VIRAL AGENTS.CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME • • • • • • LASTING FATIGUE 6 MONTS OR MORE MAY FOLLOW COLD. FLU. NSAIDS • NO CURE . MONO MUSCLE WEAKNESS / JOINT DISEASE HEADACHE. ANTIDEPRESSANTS.

• • • • • • • • Pernicious Anemia Rheumatoid Arthritis Guillain-Barre’ Scleroderma Ulcerative colitis Myasthenia Gravis Multiple Sclerosis Systemic Lupus Erythmatosis .

SCLERODERMA • Cause unknown • 18 – 20 people per million. per year (rare) • Remissions and exacerbations • Starts with skin involvement • Then skin undergoes fibrotic changes loss of elasticity and movement • Becomes non-functional .

• Over secretion of of uric acid • Or a renal defect resulting in decreased excretion of uric acid or a combination of both occur .GOUT • A heterogenous group of conditions related to a genetic defect in purine metabolism that results in hyper uricemia.

organ meats) 3. some types of anemia. Severe dieting or malnutrition 2. Altered renal tubular function . psoriasis) 4.Faulty Uric Acid Metabolism 1. saliciylates (low dose). ethanol 5. multiple myeloma.Pharmacological agents ( diuretics such as thiazides and furosemide. Increase in alcohol intake . Excessive diet of foods high in purines (shellfish. Secondary to increase in cell turnover and cell breakdown ( leukemia.

• Metatarsophalangeal joint of big toe the most common site (90%) • May cause renal stones and damage .

RX • • • • • • • Test of synovial fluid of joint involved Acute attack Colchicine Indomethethacin NSAID Corticosteroids After Acute Attack Subsides Urososuric Agents – Benemid – these correct hyperuricemia and dissolve deposited urate .

• If at risk for renal insufficiency or kidney stones • Allopurinol. a xanthine oxidase inhibitor is also effective .

FIBOMYALGIA • Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome • fatigue • 2% of population affected • More common in women .

Treatment • No specific symptoms • Trycyclic antidepressants • Serotonin reuptake inhibitors • Anticonvulsants .

Osteoarthritis • Degenerative Joint Disease • Wear and Tear Syndrome • Most common and most frequently • over treated or under treated • Idiopathic in nature .

• Chronic connective tissue disease involving multiple organ systems. • Deposit of antigen or antibody complexes that affect the connective cells throughout the body.SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE) • A result of disturbed immune regulation that causes an exaggerated production of auto-antibodies. .

CAUSES OF SLE • Unknown • Genetic • Autoimmune • Viral • Drug induced: procainamide (Pronestyl) and hydralazine (Apresoline) .

renal complications . joint pain. fatigue.Home Care Instructions • • • • • • Stop smoking Lupus foundation Identify ways to reduce stress S & S Renal failure Avoid people with infections Monitor self for infection.

Diagnostic Tests • • • • • • • Hematology Rheumatoid factor *LE cell preparation *Urine chemistry Blood chemistry *ANA *Skin Biopsy • *Key findings .

Complications of SLE • • • • • • • • • • Necrosis of glomerular capillaries Inflammation of cerebral and ocular blood vessels Necrosis of lymph nodes Vasculitis of GI tract and pleura Degeneration of the skin’s basal layer Heart failure Seizures Depression Infection Peripheral neuropathy .

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